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    • Article

      Ontogeny of feeding apparatus and foregut of mud crab Scylla serrata Forsskål larvae 

      GJ Lumasag, ET Quinitio, RO Aguilar, RB Baldevarona & CA Saclauso - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      The development of the feeding apparatus of the mud crab Scylla serrata larvae was studied using electron microscopy for mandibles and light microscopy for other paired mouthparts and the foregut. The six paired mouthparts, which consisted of the mandibles, maxillules, maxillae, first maxillipeds, second maxillipeds and third maxillipeds, were dissected from specimens representing each larval stage. The first five paired appendages were already present in newly hatched larvae while third maxillipeds appeared only at the megalopa stage. Mandibles displayed complex incisor and molar processes at early zoeal stages, which became simple in morphology at megalopa. Mandibular palp buds were observed at the zoea 5 stage and these became fully developed as three-segmented mandibular palps at the megalopa stage. Endopods of other paired mouthparts exhibited increased number of setae and size as the individual metamorphosed from zoeal stages to megalopa and crab instar. The foregut appeared as a continuous cavity at zoea 1 where the cardiopyloric valve was indistinct while the filter gland was clearly identifiable. Zoea 2 and succeeding zoeal stages exhibited a setose foregut; the gastric mill and its lateral and median teeth were prominent at zoea 3 stage. The significance of these morphological changes is discussed in terms of its implication in larval feeding management.
    • Article

      Ultrastructure of the anterior intestinal epithelia of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae under different feeding regimes 

      YH Primavera-Tirol, RM Coloso, GF Quinitio, R Ordonio-Aguilar & LV Laureta Jr. - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2014 - Springer Verlag
      Enterocytes of the anterior to midsection of the intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae were compared among different treatments: unfed to the point-of-no-return (PNR), fed natural food only, and co-fed natural food and artificial diet. On day 3, the nutritional condition of unfed grouper larvae regressed with its reduced enterocyte heights which were further degraded on day 4, the PNR, when all the enterocytes were in advanced stages of apoptosis. The apoptosis appeared to be internally directed via the mitochondria. Among day 3 fed larvae, enterocyte heights of those fed artificial diet did not differ from those fed natural food only. Dietary phospholipid deficiency was indicated in larvae co-fed artificial diet on day 3 with an unusually large chylomicron opening into the inter-enterocyte space, and on days 6 and 33 by intestinal steatosis. On day 19, scant to absent lipid droplets in enterocytes of larvae disclosed heightened nutritional requirement preparatory to metamorphosis. As observed in unfed day 3 and premetamorphic day 19 E. coioides, larvae undergoing critical periods and starvation during development employ apoptosis to dispose of degenerated enterocytes that are phagocytosed by adjacent healthy enterocytes without causing inflammatory distress. Upon metamorphosis, grouper larval gut develops better immunity fitness with eosinophilic granule cells observed in the intestinal epithelia of day 33 larvae. Future studies on grouper larval nutrition may consider the appropriate dietary phospholipid levels and larval competence to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acid from linoleic acid vis-à-vis the use of plant ingredients in artificial diet formulations. In vivo challenge tests may validate appropriate dietary nutrient supplementation and lead to better feed formulation, matching the varying energetic demands and digestive capacities of developing E. coioides larvae.