Now showing items 1-14 of 14

    • Article

      Changes in the steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels during the gametogenic cycle of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon 

      ET Quinitio, A Hara, K Yamauchi & S Nakao - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 1994 - Elsevier
      The levels of estradiol-17β, and progesterone in the hemolymph, ovaries and hepatopancreas, in relation to the vitellogenin levels of captive female Penaeus monodon, were determined during the gametogenic cycle. Estradiol in the hemolymph was detected in fully mature shrimps (Stage 5) only. The ovarian estradiol levels were quite variable but showed no significant differences in the mature (Stages 4 and 5) and spent stage (Stage 6). In the hepatopancreas, a peak in estradiol level was noted in mature shrimps (Stage 5). The progesterone levels in the hemolymph were high in shrimps with mature ovaries (Stages 4 and 5) while those with immature ovaries (Stages 2, 3 and spent) were low or undetectable. The progesterone levels in both ovaries and hepatopancreas were significantly high in mature shrimps. The vitellogenin levels increased simultaneously with ovarian development and reached maximum levels during the final stage of vitellogenesis. A decrease in levels was observed after egg release. The correlation between the levels of progesterone and vitellogenin may indicate a positive effect of this steroid on vitellogenin production.
    • Conference paper

      Development of hatchery techniques for the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskål): Comparison of feeding schemes 

      ET Quinitio, F Parado-Estepa & V Alava - In CP Keenan & A Blackshaw (Eds.), Mud Crab Aquaculture and Biology. Proceedings of an international scientific forum held in Darwin, Australia, 21–24 April 1997, 1999 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Scylla serrata larvae were reared in 3 L plastic containers and fed various amounts of artificial diets (AD) with or without natural food (NF: Brachionus rotundiformis and newly-hatched Artemia). The amounts of AD fed alone to zoea in treatments (T) 1 to 4 were as follows: 1) 2.0 mg/L/day + 0.25 mg/L/day increment/substage; 2) 2.0 mg/L/day + 0.5 mg/L/day increment/ substage; 3) 4.0 mg/L/day + 0.5 mg/L/day increment/substage; 4) 4.0 mg/L/day + 1.0 mg/L/day increment/ substage. NF were given in addition to the respective amounts of artificial diet in T5, T6, T7 and T8. T9 served as the control (NF only). Based on three experimental runs, only larvae in T5, T6, and T9 survived until the megalopa stage. Thus, only these three treatments were compared in succeeding experiments using a commercial shrimp diet in 250 L fibreglass tanks. Of the three runs conducted using a commercial diet, two runs showed significant differences (P<0.05) in survival. T5 gave higher survival (3.71% and 1.33%) than T9 (1.84% and 0.45%) and T6 (1.37% and 0.45%). Population development index did not differ among treatments in three runs.
    • Article

      Domestication of the mud crab Scylla serrata 

      ET Quinitio, JJ de la Cruz, MRR Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, GS Pates Jr. & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Aquaculture International, 2011 - Springer Verlag
      The significant decrease in wild mud crab population highlights the need to manage the resources and domesticate crabs. This paper presents the initial results of the domestication of mud crab Scylla serrata aimed at producing good-quality captive broodstock. The analysis of the genetic structure of the base population was done as a prerequisite for domestication. Adult S. serrata from the northern to southern parts of the Philippines (Cagayan, Camarines, Samar, and Surigao) were obtained for genetic diversity analysis and domestication. Analysis of molecular variance showed that differences in the genetic variability between the four populations were not significant. Moreover, no significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium was observed in each sample population and even in pooled populations. Body weight was positively correlated with the carapace width. Second spawning occurred 41–46 days after the first spawning and 34 days from second to third spawning. However, there was a decrease in the number of zoea in repeat spawnings. Twenty-four first-generation (F1) families were produced from the four sites. The duration from spawning of the base population (P0) to attainment of broodstock size F1 was 10–14 months. Four second-generation (F2) families were produced after 11–12 months. Up to the F2, crabs tested negative for six viruses: white spot syndrome virus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, gill-associated virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, and infectious myonecrosis virus. The reproductive performance of P0 was comparable to the succeeding generations. Several families were obtained from one population in a year. However, due to the cannibalistic behavior of crabs, more space is required for the nursery and grow-out phase. The domestication of S. serrata is the first study done on any mud crab species in the Indo-west Pacific region. The initial results would serve as guide to understand and eliminate the barriers to mud crab domestication. The breeding technology developed from this study will support the production of good-quality seedstock for farming.
    • Article

      Female-specific SNP markers provide insights into a WZ/ZZ sex determination system for mud crabs Scylla paramamosain, S. tranquebarica and S. serrata with a rapid method for genetic sex identification 

      Mud crabs, Scylla spp., are commercially important large-size marine crustaceans in the Indo-West Pacific region. As females have the higher growth rate and economic value, the production of all female stocks is extremely essential in aquaculture. However, the sex determination mechanism is still unclear. Development of sex-specific genetic markers based on next-generation sequencing proved to be an effective tool for discovering sex determination system in various animals.
    • Conference paper

      Implication of mud crab culture technology transfer on rural coastal communities: The case in northern Samar, Philippines 

      DB Baticados, RF Agbayani & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The socio-economic implications of technology transfer of mud crab culture on small-scale growers in Northern Samar and the mechanism of nursery technology transfer were investigated. The study covered four Peoples Organizations (POs), each operating in villages of the four municipalities of Northern Samar namely, Lavezares, Rosario, Laoang, and Pambujan. These were sites of the Philippine-Australian Community Assistance Program - assisted mud crab (Scylla) culture livelihood projects. Interviews from 60 beneficiaries revealed that most (76%) were relatively new to mud crab culture, particularly fattening or growout, but 65% were gleaners of mud crabs for more than 5 years. The average age of respondents was 45 years old and were predominantly male. Most (93%) were married with an average household size of six. A cost and return analysis of mud crab fattening in pens using only two compartments showed that the net income (P4,832/month for a 30-day culture period) is not sufficient if shared among 40 PO members participating in only one economic activity. Consequently, most (63 %) respondents whose livelihood projects were cooperative undertaking were no longer keen with the cooperative-run project. Interestingly, those (83 %) who operated their own farm wanted to continue and expand (26 %), particularly those in Rosario. The motivation factors that influenced growers to continue mud crab culture and adopt the nursery technology being disseminated were primarily economic with extra income and source of cash as main reasons for adoption. Majority also claimed that the nursery technology that was being transferred by SEAFDEC/AQD was simple.

      The mud crab pond nursery technology transfer involved community training and participation of beneficiaries, beginning with the linking of technologists and socio-economists with on-the-ground partners. Thereafter, season-long training and farm demonstration followed comprising lecture series and hands-on demonstration. Nursery pond operations were conducted in an open pond (Rosario) and in a pond within a mangrove area (Pambujan). Survival in the pond within a mangrove area was higher (68 %) than in an open pond (50 %) for phase 1, suggesting that the mangrove played a role on mud crab endurance. However, survival in phase 2 (72 %, Pambujan; 83 %, Rosario) showed a reversed trend, suggesting that bigger crablets can withstand/endure harsh pond conditions.

      Results of the demonstration indicated that the nursery technology is a viable enterprise, showing an ROI of 93.50% in Rosario and 198.04% in Pambujan. Most (83%) of the growers were interested in the nursery technology, although only few PO members participated in the season-long training. Ownership of area, market, and farm distance from household were the more important considerations that influenced small-scale growers in adopting the technology.
    • Article

      Isolation and characterization of vitellin from the ovary of Penaeus monodon 

      ET Quinitio, A Hara, K Yamauchi & A Fuji - Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 1990 - International Society of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development
      Female-specific protein (FSP, vitellogenin) in Penaeus monodon hemolymph and its related ovarian protein (vitellin, lipovitellin) were identified and characterized using electrophoretical and immunological procedures. The purification of vitellin from mature ovaries was carried out using hydroxylapatite and Sepharose 6B columns. Results indicated that there are two proteins specifically existing in the hemolymph of the mature female which are immunologically identical to ovarian protein. These are absent in the male. The isolated vitellin has a molecular weight of approximately 540 kDa and is composed of 4 major (polypeptide) subunits, 74, 83, 104 and 168 kDa and 1 minor (polypeptide) subunit, 90 kDa. The purified protein stained positively with periodic acid-Schiff and Sudan black B and thus is a glycolipoprotein.

      Results of double immunodiffusion demonstrate the cross-reactivity of P. monodon vitellin antiserum with the ovarian extract from mature females of Penaeus indicus, Penaeus merguiensis and Penaeus semisulcatus, but not with Pandalus kessleri, indicating that there is no antigenic difference at species level in Penaeidae.
    • Conference paper

      Larval survival and megalopa production of Scylla sp. at different salinities 

      FD Parado-Estepa & ET Quinitio - In CP Keenan & A Blackshaw (Eds.), Mud Crab Aquaculture and Biology. Proceedings of an International Scientific Forum, 21-24 April 1997, Darwin, Australia, 1999 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Salinity tolerance was determined for each zoeal stage of Scylla sp. Larvae from ablated pond-grown females were abruptly transferred to salinities of 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 ppt. Spawning salinity or previous rearing salinity was 32 ppt, except for Z5 which were previously reared at 26 ppt. The mean median lethal time or LT50 values were compared between salinities. For Z1 and Z2, highest values were obtained at 20–32 ppt. Z3 had highest LT50 values at 20–24 ppt and Z4 at 24–32 ppt. For Z5, highest LT50 values were obtained at 20–32 ppt. Another batch of Z3 and Z4 were subjected to the same abrupt salinity transfers and reared to the megalopa stage. Significantly higher percentages of larvae metamorphosed to the megalopa stage at salinities of 20–28 ppt when transfer to test salinities was at Z3. When transfer was at Z4 or Z5, the highest percentage of larvae moulted to the megalopa stage at 24–28 ppt or at 28 ppt, respectively.
    • Article

      Midgut gland as monitor organ for the nutritional value of diets in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda) 

      G Vogt, V Storch, ET Quinitio & FP Pascual - Aquaculture, 1985 - Elsevier
      Midgut gland cells of Penaeus monodon postlarvae were investigated by electron microscopy after starvation and refeeding with different diets.

      Well nourished postlarvae could be starved for 5 days without irreversible detriment. They recovered easily on a good diet. Only R cells were affected by a short starvation period. After 13 days of food deprivation the structures of all cell types were disintegrated. The postlarvae were able to starve for a maximum of 15 days. The most diversified ultrastructure was obtained by refeeding with cod liver oil and 2s (mixed diet). Casein was not well utilized. Sucrose was the poorest diet. The midgut gland of Penaeus monodon seems to be lipid oriented. Only fat was used as storage material; glycogen was lacking.

      Different ultrastructures were induced in R cells by a given diet after longer starvation periods. The reestablishment of their ultrastructure by means of a definite diet seems to be impossible after a certain period of starvation (point of no return).

      R cells are very sensitive to different diets. B cells show slight reactions, while F and E cells remain relatively unchanged. This indicates that R cells could be used to monitor the nutritional value of prawn diets in aquaculture.
    • Book chapter

      Nursery and grow-out of mud crab 

      ET Quinitio, MEM Rodriguez & FDP Estepa - In Training Handbook on Rural Aquaculture, 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Philippine National Standard for Live Mud Crabs: establishing food safety and quality requirements 

      MF Matubang, TS Palomares, JP Peralta, ET Quinitio, RJ Ragaza, JV Alejo, PB Regazpi, CE Romero, HA Montoya, JG Trinidad & KKA Roscom - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards (BAFS) of the Department of Agriculture (DA), in collaboration with the relevant government and research agencies, academe and industry organization, is currently developing the Philippine National Standard (PNS) for live mangrove crabs (also known as mud crabs). This PNS defines the food safety and quality requirements for live mangrove crabs in order to ensure consumers&rsquo; health and make the product globally competitive. The process in the development of standards include review of the existing requirements of local and foreign markets and internationally recognized standards, creation of the Technical Working Group, initial drafting of the PNS, conduct of public consultations in major production areas, finalization of the draft for the PNS, notification to the World Trade Organization and approval of the DA Secretary.

      The PNS for live mangrove crabs specifies the scope of the standard, product description, essential composition and quality factors, hygiene, handling, labeling requirements, methods of sampling, examination and analysis, definition of defectives, and the requirements for product lot acceptance.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

      FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.

      Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.
    • Conference paper

      Resiliency of small-holder fishfarmers to climate change and market prices in selected communities in the Philippines 

      RF Agbayani, DB Baticados, ET Quinitio & DH Tormon-West - In MG Bondad-Reantaso & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Enhancing the contribution of small-scale aquaculture to food security, poverty alleviation and socioeconomic development, 2013 - FAO
      Series: FAO fisheries and aquaculture proceedings; 31
      A rapid assessment of the resiliency of small-holder fishfarmers in selected communities in the Philippines was conducted to gather the fishfarmers’ observations and insights about climate change and market prices, and the impacts of climate change on their environment, livelihood and life, in general, and to learn measures they have adopted to cope with adverse situations. The study sites were communities that were undertaking aquaculture livelihood, with technical support from the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre or SEAFDEC/AQD and logistical assistance from their local governments and international and private donors. The climate change phenomena observed in the study sites were flash floods, sea level rises, increases in temperature, stronger waves, and longer dry season (drought). The major ecological impacts were mortality of marine flora and fauna, destruction of aquaculture facilities (cages and ponds), disruption of aquaculture protocol, and frequent occurrence of fish diseases. As a result, fishfarmers suffered substantial financial losses that forced them to either borrow more money (most are already heavily indebted), or stop operation until financial support is available. To help each other survive common hardships, the fishfarmers resorted to the Philippine traditional “bayanihan” system or collective action for their common good.

      Rapid assessment studies can only provide initial insights on the situation in the community. A more comprehensive and integrated methodology to include various dimensions (human, ecological, economic, technological and institutional) is recommended in future studies on climate change.
    • Book

      Soft-shell crab production using hatchery-reared mud crab 

      EJ Tobias-Quinitio, GXS Libunao, FD Parado-Estepa & AT Calpe - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARRD)
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 61
      "The production of soft-shell crabs is well established in other Asian countries but its sustainability is already being threatened due to the decreasing mud crab population in the wild where the seedstocks are sourced. In the Philippines, production of soft-shell crabs has only been practiced recently due to lack of seedstock and technology. Sourcing of crablets from the natural environment is not encouraged due to dwindling populations of all sizes of mud crabs. Instead, it is recommended that crablets for soft-shell crab production come from hatcheries. The project on soft-shell mud crab production at SEAFDEC/AQD started in 2012 and was later funded by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology. The project is adopting the individual crab culture sytem of Thailand and Myanmar in pilot-scale and uses hatchery-reared crablets grown to 60-100 g in earthen ponds and stocked in trays. The pilotscale soft-shell production set-up is showcased at the Dumangas Brackishwater Station of SEAFDEC/AQD using crab boxes available in the country. Various sectors are interested to learn how soft-shell crabs are produced. Hence, the previous manual on Soft-shell Mud Crab Farming by Emilia T. Quinitio and May Myat Noe Lwin published in 2009 was revised to include the recent refinements using hatchery-reared crabs and locally available materials. This manual includes sections on the biology of mud crab, how to set-up the facility, management of soft-shell crab production and the cost and return analysis. We hope that various sectors will benefit from this revised manual" -- Foreword
    • Conference paper

      Updates on the larviculture of mud crab at SEAFDEC/AQD 

      ET Quinitio, JJDC Huervana, JC Virgula & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Although the mud crab (Scylla serrata) hatchery technology has been developed, issues such as high cost of production due to the need for additional facilities and labor for natural food culture, inconsistent survival rate at megalopa stage due to Molt Death Syndrome (MDS), and disease due to luminescent bacteria (Vibrio spp.), remain to be addressed. Refinements on the existing mud crab larviculture technology were done to address these problems.

      Poor nutrition, low water temperature and application of prophylaxis during the zoea l stage have been identified as possible causes of MDS. Six shrimp formulated diets (FD) were tested, and 3 of these proved to be suitable for mud crab larvicuture. Larval performance was compared using the 3 diets + natural food (NF, rotifers and Artemia) and NF alone as control. No significant difference was noted in the survival among the 4 treatments, although BP Nippai fed larvae had higher values. Lesser occurrence of MDS was observed in all the larvae fed FD+NF. Three mud crab larval diets with various attractants (squid, annelids, and squid + annelids) were also formulated and fed to the larvae. Results showed no significant difference among the 3 diets. The results of another experiment investigating the effects of the reduction of natural food showed that larvae fed 50% NF + 50% FD and 75%NF + 25% FD had higher survival compared to those fed 75% AD +25% NF and no NF at all. The results indicate that the larvae cannot survive with formulated diet alone. It has been observed that frequency of antibiotic application can be reduced to every 5 days if good quality mud crab larvae are used. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine the quality of a batch of newly hatched zoeae. All prophylactic treatments are stopped when megalopae reach the benthic stage.

      To accelerate the dissemination of science-based mud crab hatchery technology to industry stakeholders, SEAFDEC/AQD entered into an agreement with private hatchery operators, State Universities and Colleges, and Local Government Units on giving assistance during initial hatchery operations. Technicians were given free training, followed by in-situ hatchery operations with assistance from SEAFDEC/AQD with the funding from PCAARRD-DOST. Crablets are now being produced by the collaborators. Increase in the production of hatchery-reared crablets will eventually reduce the dependence on wild-sourced mud crab seed stock for farming.