Browsing by Author "Campbell, Iona"
ArticleJP Mateo, I Campbell, EJ Cottier-Cook, MRJ Luhan, VMEN Ferriols & AQ Hurtado -
Journal of Applied Phycology, 2020 - Springer VerlagThe seaweed industry in the Philippines is a significant contributor to aquaculture production, both nationally and internationally. It out-produces the capture fisheries sector and most global producers, with the exception of China and Indonesia. Seaweed species, particularly Kappaphycus and Eucheuma spp., have been farmed throughout the country since the early 1970s. In 2017, the Philippines produced 1.4 million tonnes (fwt) and exported 35,490 tonnes of seaweed and carrageenan with a value of US$174 million. However, a decreasing trend in seaweed production has been observed since the mid-2000s as a result of pest and disease outbreaks, among other factors, which have been exacerbated by climate change. This paper is the first to analyze biosecurity-related national policies and legislation (a.k.a. ‘frameworks’ collectively), which are relevant to the seaweed industry in the Philippines. A total of 12 frameworks were identified, of which a sub-set of seven were compared using defined biosecurity themes, risks, and management measures to evaluate how seaweed biosecurity is incorporated into national policy. The inclusion of biosecurity-related activities in national frameworks was found to be limited to aquatic animal commodities or agricultural crops. Only the Code of Good Aquaculture Practices (GAqP) for seaweed specifically included seaweed cultivation, however, it did not include any biosecurity measures. The results indicated a clear gap in current biosecurity legislation and policy in the Philippines, which if addressed have the potential to reduce the impact of endemic and emergent diseases and pests and support the sustainable growth of this important industry.
ArticleI Campbell, CSB Kambey, JP Mateo, SB Rusekwa, AQ Hurtado, FE Msuya, GD Stentiford & EJ Cottier-Cook -
Journal of Applied Phycology, 2019 - Springer VerlagEach year a significant proportion of global food production is lost to pests and diseases, with concerted efforts by government and industry focussed on application of effective biosecurity policies which attempt to minimise their emergence and spread. In aquaculture the volume of seaweeds produced is second only to farmed fish and red algal carrageenophytes currently represent approximately 42% of global production of all seaweeds. Despite this importance, expansion of the seaweed sector is increasingly limited by the high prevalence of recalcitrant diseases and epiphytic pests with potential to emerge and with the demonstrated propensity to spread, particularly in the absence of effective national and international biosecurity policies. Developing biosecurity policy and legislation to manage biosecurity risk in seaweed aquaculture is urgently required to limit these impacts. To understand current international biosecurity frameworks and their efficacy, existing legislative frameworks were analysed quantitatively for the content of biosecurity measures, applicability to the seaweed industry, and inclusion of risks posed by diseases, pests and non-native species. Deficiencies in existing frameworks included the following: inconsistent terminology for inclusion of cultivated seaweeds, unclear designation of implementation responsibility, insufficient evidence-based information and limited alignment of biosecurity hazards and risks. Given the global importance of the cultivation of various seaweeds in alleviating poverty in low and middle income countries, it is crucial that the relatively low-unit value of the industry (i.e. as compared with other aquatic animal sectors) should not conflate with a perceived low risk of disease or pest transfer, nor the subsequent economic and environmental impact that disease transfer may impact on receiving nations (well beyond their seaweed operations). Developing a clear basis for development of robust international biosecurity policies related to the trade in seaweeds arising from the global aquaculture industry, by first addressing the gaps highlighted in this study, will be crucial in limiting impacts of pests and diseases on this valuable industry and on natural capital in locations where seaweeds are farmed.