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    • Conference paper

      Status of development and use of alternative ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations in Singapore 

      O Yihang & V Ong - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The aquaculture industry in Singapore started in 1980s. The country has approximately 130 aquaculture farms, mostly located in the western part of the country. Aquaculture production mainly comes from coastal farms and the cultured fishes are milkfish, mullet, Asian sea bass, grouper, snapper, and pompano. With regard to land-based farms, the fish produced are mainly freshwater fish species such as catfish, tilapia, snakehead, gourami, marble goby and various species of carps. In 2013, the aquaculture industry produced approximately 4,200 metric tons (mt) which represented 8% of the entire country s fish consumption. The rest of the fish and other aquatic products consumed by the populace were imported from the neighboring countries and from Norway for salmon.
    • Conference paper

      Use of plant proteins in aquaculture feed for top five commodities in ASEAN member states 

      RM Coloso - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fish production from aquaculture in Asia has steadily increased during the past decade. In 2012, Asia s share in the total world aquaculture production was about 89% with 60 M metric tons valued at US$ 120 B. ASEAN Member States such as Viet Nam, Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, and the Philippines are among the top producers in Asia contributing 9 M metric tons of production from aquaculture valued at US$ 19 B (FAO, 2014). To sustain the production and profitability of aquaculture operations, reducing costs is needed mainly through feeds and feeding which represent up to 60% of operational costs. Reductions in feeding costs can be realized through optimizing nutrient levels of diets, feeding strategies, and by using plant protein sources as fish meal substitutes. As more intensive methods for production of the top five commodities (carps, tilapia, milkfish, catfish, and Pangasius sp.) become popular in ASEAN Member States, practical feeds need to be formulated using plant protein sources that are locally available. Plant protein sources such as soy proteins and corn gluten have been used as partial or total replacements for fish meal quite extensively in aquafeed for the top aquaculture commodities because of their high protein content (40-60%) and good digestibility. Other alternative dietary protein sources with emphasis on oilseed meals, peas and other leguminous seed meals, leaf meals from terrestrial plants, aquatic plants, plant protein concentrates, single cell proteins, cereal by products, fermentation and other products have been or are currently being evaluated as fish meal substitutes for their nutritive values, inclusion levels, constraints in processing mainly to reduce the effects of anti-nutritional factors as well as economic value. The proper use of these ingredients would promote good fish growth, survival, production, and boost the income of small scale farmers. Testing of aquaculture feeds containing these local ingredients will help the regional as well as worldwide research and development efforts and ultimately benefit the local small scale fish farmers and other stakeholders.