Now showing items 1-3 of 3

    • Article

      Effect of different mangrove-to-pond area ratios on influent water quality and WSSV occurrence in Penaeus monodon semi-intensive farms using the greenwater culture technique 

      EA Tendencia, RH Bosma, JH Primavera & JAJ Verreth - Aquaculture, 2012 - Elsevier
      White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been affecting the shrimp industry worldwide for two decades now. It continues to bring economic losses to affected farms. Despite the many studies on its epidemiology, there is no proven treatment or control measure. Diseases, like the WSSV, results from the interaction of three factors: host, pathogen and environment. The environment plays an important role in disease development and determines the health or the immune capacity of the shrimp. High mangrove-to-pond area ratio (MPR) is reported as a protective factor against WSSV. This study investigates if mangroves affect the physicochemical properties of the water and soil as well as the prevalence of infectious agents like the WSSV by monitoring farms with different MPR (0:1, 1:1, 4:1).

      Results showed that quality of influent water was not significantly better in farms with high MPR. Significantly higher available sulfur was observed in MPR-4; significantly higher percentage green vibrios in the soil in MPR-0. WSSV was detected in farms with MPR-1 and MPR-4 but did not result in an outbreak, suggesting that the presence of mangroves could prevent WSSV outbreak.
    • Article

      White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) risk factors associated with shrimp farming practices in polyculture and monoculture farms in the Philippines 

      EA Tendencia, RH Bosma & JAJ Verreth - Aquaculture, 2011 - Elsevier
      White spot sydrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral disease of shrimp. Several studies to control the disease have been done. Tank experiments identified WSSV risk factors related to the physico chemical properties of the water. A few studies reported pond level WSSV risk factors. This study identifies the risk factors associated with essentially two different farming systems: polyculture and semi-intensive monoculture of Penaeus monodon. Data were gathered from a total of 174 shrimp farmers in eight provinces of the Philippines using a structured questionnaire. Forty-seven variables related to pond history and site description, period of culture, pond preparation techniques, water management, culture methods, feed and other inputs, and biosecurity measures were investigated. In the analysis for combined monoculture and polyculture farms, feeding live molluscs was identified as important WSSV risk factors. In addition to feeding live molluscs, sharing of water source with other farms, having the same receiving and water source, larger pond size, and higher stocking density were identified as important WSSV risk factors in monoculture farms. Climate, i.e. stocking during the cold months and sludge removal and its deposition on the dikes were identified as WSSV risk factors in polyculture farms. Protective factors, listed in decreasing significance, were feeding with planktons and high mangrove to pond area ratio, both observed in the dataset with both monoculture and polyculture farms, while only the latter was observed in the dataset for monoculture farms only. No protective factor was observed in the dataset for polyculture farms.

      This study confirmed the negative effect of sharing water source with other farms and identified several new factors influencing WSSV infection such as feeding live molluscs increases the risk, while feeding with planktons and high mangrove to pond area ratio reduce the risk.