Now showing items 1-6 of 6

    • Article

      Apparent digestibility coefficient of nutrients from shrimp, mussel, diatom and seaweed by juvenile Holothuria scabra Jaeger 

      ZGA Orozco, JG Sumbing, MJH Lebata-Ramos & S Watanabe - Aquaculture Research, 2014 - Wiley
      The ability of Holothuria scabra to digest nutrients, such as organic matter (OM), protein and carbohydrate from animal and plant feed ingredients was investigated. Four test feeds prepared by mixing sand with single ingredients from animal sources (shrimp and mussel) and plant sources (diatom and seaweed) were fed to H. scabra to estimate apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC). The total assimilated nutrient (TAN) increased with ADC, whereas ingestion rate (IR) varied slightly among the feeds suggesting that ADC might be a good indicator of nutrient availability to H. scabra. The ADCOM of shrimp and mussel was significantly higher than that diatom and seaweed: 86.2%, 77.1%, 55.1% and 32.3% respectively. ADCprotein was similar for shrimp (88.7%), mussel (84.8%) and diatom (75.2%), but significantly lower in seaweed (34.4%). ADCcarbohydrate was similar in mussel (58.5%) and diatom (58.3%) as well as in seaweed (31.6) and shrimp (28.0%). ADCprotein was relatively higher than ADCcarbohydrate suggesting that H. scabra generally digests more protein than carbohydrate. Furthermore, results indicated that nutrients from animal-based feeds are more efficiently digested by H. scabra; thus, animal ingredients rich in easily digestible protein could potentially provide an efficiently balanced diet for H. scabra fed with diatom containing high easily digestible carbohydrate.
    • Article

      Evaluation of agar-bound microparticulate diet as alternative food in abalone hatchery: Effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, MR de la Peña & AJ Asutilla - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2013 - National Shellfisheries Association
      The performance of an agar-bound microparticulate diet (A-MPD) was evaluated on feeding postlarval abalone Haliotis asinina, focusing on the effects of agar concentrations and feeding frequencies. Larval abalone, obtained from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department hatchery, were reared in 60-L flow-through tanks with UV-filtered seawater. They were fed 1,200 mg A-MPD bound with either 5.0 mg/mL agar solution, 7.5 mg/mL agar solution, 10.0 mg/mL agar solution, and 12.5 mg/mL agar solution, or a natural diet consisting of diatoms at different feeding frequencies (daily, every other day, or every 2 d) starting at day 5. A 5 × 3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design tested the effects of various treatments on postlarval settlement and survival after days 15 and 90. Scheffé's postcomparison test determined differences among treatments means. Postlarval settlement and survival were not significantly different in diets bound with higher agar concentrations and tested in 3 feeding frequencies. At lower levels of agar incorporation in diets, however, settlement and survival counts became significantly higher on daily feeding. Postlarval settlement and survival were significantly highest with abalone fed a diet bound with 7.5 mg/mL agar solution on a daily feeding frequency. Average percent weight loss in the feed was higher with lower levels of agar incorporation. Average particle size of both A-MPD and diatoms was 4–5 µm. Crude protein content of A-MPD was 42.7%; that of diatoms was 14.9%. A-MPD may be used as alternative food in abalone hatcheries with the incorporation of 7.5 mg/mL agar solution fed daily to abalone.
    • Article

      Identification and culture of common diatoms as possible feed for Penaeus monodon 

      T Pimoljinda - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Diatoms were collected from Buyuan Bay, and from the hatchery tanks at Tigbauan, to determine the commonly occurring species, the feasibility of culturing these species, and the potential of these selected species as food for larval P. monodon. The commonly occurring diatoms were identified as Chaetoceros calcitrans, Navicula grimmei, Nitzchia seriata, Nitzchia closterium and Amphiprora sp. These diatoms were isolated and unialgal cultures prepared. Protein content analysis using the micro-Kjildahl method gave the following result: C. calcitrans, 11 . 78%; Nitzchia seriata, 25%; Nitzchia closterium, 30 . 5%; Navicula grimmei, 9 . 06% and Amphiprora sp. 8 . 96%.

      Feeding experiments were conducted to determine acceptability of the different diatom species and percentage survival of larval stages Z1 - M2. Larvae were placed in 4-l capacity plastic containers with a stocking density of 10/l. The results of several feeding trials using the different mass-produced diatoms are summarized.

      From the data gathered, C. calcitrans appears to be the most promising candidate as feed for zoea and mysis stages of P. monodon. The average percentage survival of C. calcitrans was 63 . 76% for the 3 trials, and as high as 82 . 22% in the third trial. Comparatively high percentage survival of larvae was also recorded when Nitzchia seriata (48 . 17%) and Nitzchia closterium (67 . 6%) were given as feed, while both Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei gave 0% survival. The poor results with Amphiprora sp. and Navicula grimmei may be due to their low protein content (8 . 96% and 9 . 06%, respectively) and the inability of the larvae to ingest them. Navicula and Amphiprora were observed to cling to the appendages of the larvae and to settle down in the medium making them unavailable to the larvae. Low survival was also noted when frozen C. calcitrans was used (14 . 25%). This may be due partly to the effect of the floculating agent (ALSO4.25 g/l) used in concentrating the diatoms.

      When protein contents of C. calcitrans, N. seriata and N. closterium are compared, the 2 Nitzchia species have relatively higher protein contents than C. calcitrans and, therefore, could be the more desirable feed candidates. However, few feeding trials were made using Nitzchia so that additional investigations will have to be done on this aspect.
    • Article

      Production of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) using four natural food types in an extensive system 

      I Bombeo-Tuburan, NG Guanzon Jr. & GL Schroeder - Aquaculture, 1993 - Elsevier
      Growth, survival, and production of P. monodon feeding on four types of natural food, i.e., lablab (benthic mat of cyanobacteria, diatoms, and associated fauna), Ruppia maritima, lumut (filamentous green algae and attached organisms entangled in the water column and on the bottom), and plankton, were evaluated in ponds in Iloilo, Philippines. The gut content of shrimp was analyzed and the flow of the food web was traced using stable carbon isotope (δC) analysis. Twelve 500-m2 ponds were stocked with juvenile shrimp (average weight 0.8 g) and grown for 3 months at the rate of 4000 ha−1. In Ruppia and plankton ponds, the shrimp attained 91–92% survival, and in lumut and lablab ponds, 76–80%. Total shrimp production in Ruppia and plankton ponds was 114 and 129 kg ha−1 crop−1, while lumut and lablab ponds yielded only 59 and 85 kg ha−1 crop−1, respectively. The δC analysis of all treatments was not significantly different, indicating that a common food (detritus), as shown by the gut content analysis, appears to be the most significant food resource of shrimp in this study. Shrimp foreguts from all the treatments consisted of detritus (non-living particulate matter), copepod/animal remains, diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green algae. Detritus ranked highest in frequency of occurrence, followed by copepod/animal remains.
    • Article

      Response of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, larvae on combinations of attachment cues 

      RSJ Gapasin & BB Polohan - Hydrobiologia, 2005 - Springer Verlag
      The effects of different diatom species and types of substrates in combination with 0.45 μM GABA on the metamorphosis of Haliotis asinina larvae were tested. Diatom slurry elicited the best metamorphic response followed by Amphora sp., Amphora + Nitzschia and Nitzschia cf. frustulum in that order. With regards to substrate types, roughened plexiglass seemed to be the most preferred while fibrocement the least preferred surface. Overall, diatom slurry grown on plexiglass surface promoted the greatest number of metamorphosed H. asinina postlarvae. For economic considerations and practical reasons, chemical inducers like gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), should be used singly or separately from other settlement-inducing cues, such as the “substrate-diatom” complex.
    • Conference paper

      Will microbial manipulation sustain the ecological balance in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries? 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, LJ Albright & MG Paner - In TW Flegel (Ed.), Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology : Proceedings to the special session on shrimp biotechnology, 5th Asian Fisheries Forum, 11-14 November 1998, Chiengmai, Thailand, 1998 - National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      A shift in preferred methods employed to contain bacterial diseases in the hatchery phase of shrimp culture has resulted largely from the unsuccessful control by and deleterious effects of chemotherapy. Manipulation of hatchery microbial ecology has gained popularity, but for successful implementation, this niche-filling approach requires a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of bacterial diseases in the hatchery. This study examined the responses of Vibrio harveyi populations, (associated with luminescent vibriosis in shrimp larvae) to various physico-chemical factors and various hatchery components. Results showed that V. harveyi had a wider range of tolerance to environmental parameters than larvae of Penaeus monodon, such that control measures based on manipulation of these parameters might not be feasible. However, it was evident from the results that there were components in the shrimp hatchery environment that could be manipulated to control high populations of V. harveyi. The natural microflora of seawater, as well as the microbial flora associated with the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans negatively affected the survival of V. harveyi in experimental mixed cultures. The successful manipulation of such benign microbial components to compete with and exclude potential pathogens is necessary to sustain ecological balance in the shrimp hatchery environment.