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Book chapter- In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterSome viral infections are serious diseases of groupers causing heavy mortalities. In most cases, larval stages are the most susceptible stage. With the carnivorous nature of groupers, they can readily ingest viral pathogens from live fish food or trash fish that carry the viral pathogens. Moreover, viruses are able to effect vertical transmission from broodstocks that are likely carriers of the virus. Survivors of viral epizootics can be carriers of viral pathogens. This chapter focuses on current information on the major viral infections of groupers, i.e., viral nervous necrosis (VNN) and viral infections attributed to the family Iridoviridae.