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    • Article

      Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products 

      EC Amar, V Kiron, S Satoh & T Watanabe - Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2004 - Elsevier
      The effects of orally administered carotenoids from natural sources on the non-specific defense mechanisms of rainbow trout were evaluated in a nine-week feeding trial. Fish were fed four diets containing either β-carotene or astaxanthin at 100 and 200 mg kg−1 from the marine algae Dunaliella salina and red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, respectively, and a control diet containing no supplemented carotenoids. Specific growth rate and feed:gain ratio were not affected by dietary carotenoid supplementation. Among the humoral factors, serum alternative complement activity increased significantly in all carotenoid supplemented groups when compared to the control. On the other hand, serum lysozyme activity increased in the Dunaliella> group but not in the Phaffia group, whereas plasma total immunoglobulin levels were not altered by the feeding treatments. As for the cellular responses, the superoxide anion production from the head kidney remained unchanged while the phagocytic rate and index in all supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control. These findings demonstrate that dietary carotenoids from both D. salina and P. rhodozyma can modulate some of the innate defense mechanisms in rainbow trout.
    • Article

      Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defence mechanisms in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) 

      EC Amar, V Kiron, S Satoh & T Watanabe - Aquaculture Research, 2001 - Wiley-Blackwell
      This study examined the influence of different carotenoids on growth and some immune indices in rainbow trout. Six semipurified casein-based diets were formulated to contain one of three different carotenoids: astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene, at 100 mg kg−1, each of them with vitamins A, C and E either added or omitted. The two control diets contained no carotenoids and were either with or without the vitamins. Rainbow trout weighing about 140 g were fed the diets for 9 weeks. Specific growth rate, feed:gain ratio and nonspecific immune parameters were determined. Growth and feed conversion were similar among the groups. Immune parameters like production of reactive oxygen species by head kidney leukocytes and plasma total immunoglobulin levels did not vary with the treatment. Serum complement activity in both β-carotene groups and the vitamin-containing astaxanthin group were significantly higher than both the control fish. Serum lysozyme activity in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups were significantly different from both control groups. Phagocytic activity was also high in the vitamin-containing β-carotene and astaxanthin groups compared with the controls. For phagocytic index, in addition to the foregoing groups, the vitamin-containing canthaxanthin group gave better results compared with the controls. The vitamin-containing astaxanthin and β-carotene groups also exhibited better nonspecific cytotoxicity for the peripheral blood lymphocytes at all effector-to-target ratios. Thus, among the carotenoids studied, β-carotene and astaxanthin elevated humoral factors such as serum complement and lysozyme activity, as well as cellular factors such as phagocytosis and nonspecific cytotoxicity. In the presence of the vitamins the carotenoids exerted a greater influence on the bio-defense mechanisms of rainbow trout.