Now showing items 1-11 of 11

    • Article

      Antibacterial activity of tilapia Tilapia hornorum against Vibrio harveyi 

      EA Tendencia, MR dela Peña, AC Fermin, G Lio-Po, CH Choresca Jr. & Y Inui - Aquaculture, 2004 - Elsevier
      Disease due to luminous Vibrio has been a major problem of the shrimp industry. Different technologies have been introduced to control the disease. One of the techniques reported to work against luminous bacteria in the Philippines is the green water culture system (or finfish–shrimp integrated culture system). A green water culture system is an innovative technique wherein shrimp are cultured in water collected from a pond where tilapia or other fish species are grown. In some cases, the fish are cultured in an isolated net pen inside the shrimp culture pond. This study clarifies the effect of one component of the green water culture system, the presence of all male tilapia (Tilapia hornorum) on luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi. Results showed that stocking tilapia at a biomass not lower than 300 g/m3 efficiently inhibited the growth of luminous bacteria in shrimp (biomass=80 g/m3) rearing water without the growth of microalgae.
    • magazineArticle

      Bighead carp - its maturation and ovulation 

      AC Fermin - Aqua Farm News, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper investigates the effects of intraperitoneal injections of LHRH-a and domperidone (DOM), given singly or in combination at two injections, on oocyte maturation and spawning in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis.
    • Article

      Diet development and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina: animal and plant protein sources 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, AC Fermin & SS Koshio - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      Growth studies were conducted to determine the suitability of animal and plant protein sources in the diet of abalone, Haliotis asinina. Juvenile abalone with mean initial weight and shell length of 0.69±0.04 g and 11.4±0.35 mm, respectively, were fed practical diets for 84 days at a temperature range of 28–31 °C. The practical diets contained 27% crude protein from various sources such as fish meal (FM), shrimp meal (SM), defatted soybean meal (DSM), and Spirulina sp. (SP). A formulated diet (diet 1) served as the control. The diets were fed to abalone at 2–5% body weight once daily at 1600 h. Weight gain (WG), increase in shell length (SL), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. Highest weight gain (WG: 454%) was attained with abalone fed diet 2 with protein sources coming from a combination of FM, SM, and DSM. This value was, however, not significantly different (P<0.05) from those fed diets 4 and 1 (Control diet) with protein sources coming from FM, SM, SP and FM, DSM, SM, respectively. Abalone fed diet 3, which used both plant protein sources, DSM and SP, showed significantly lower WG (327%). Survival was generally high ranging from 85% to 100% for all treatments. The SGR showed the same trend as the percent weight gain. The FCR and PER obtained, however, were not significantly different for all treatments. The amino acid profile of diets 1, 2, and 4 simulated that of the abalone protein, which could have been a contributing factor to the higher growth rate of abalone fed these diets. Diet 3, which contained only plant protein sources, showed relatively lower methionine values compared with the abalone muscle tissue. Although abalone are considered herbivorous animals, results of this study indicate that a combination of dietary plant and animal protein sources was necessary to attain the best growth rate.
    • Article

      Feeding live or frozen Moina macrocopa (Strauss) to Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), larvae 

      AC Fermin & MEC Bolivar - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1994 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Growth and survival of hatchery-reared sea bass, Lates calcarifer, larvae fed live or frozen Moina macrocopa were determined, In Experiment 1, Moina was fed to sea bass of different sizes: 3.6 mm, 5.5 mm and 7.6 mm standard length (SL) at stocking. After 15 days of rearing, fish with a mean initial SL of 3.6 mm had the highest specific growth rate (SGR, 18.82% per day). However, the mean survival rate was higher for fish with a mean initial size of 5.5 mm (64.76%). The mean number of ingested Moina increased with the fish body size and with the length of the feeding period. In a separate trial, sea bass larvae, regardless of size, ingested equal numbers of Artemia and Moina. In Experiment 2, live or frozen Moina was used as feed for 20-day sea bass fry (8.3 mm Sl and 13.4 mg) and compared to minced fish-by-catch (control). SGR and survival were significantly higher for fish fed live Moina. Sea bass fed frozen Moina and minced fish-by-catch had comparable growth and survival rates. Results showed that for hatchery rearing of sea bass, feeding Moina can effectively reduce the use of expensive Artemia. However, fry survival can be optimized by feeding live Moina to fish with a mean initial size of 5.5 mm SL.
    • Article

      Grow-out culture of tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus) in suspended mesh cages with different shelter surface areas 

      AC Fermin & SM Buen - Aquaculture International, 2002 - Kluwer Academic Publishers
      This study investigated the effects of shelter surface area (SSA) on the feeding, growth and survival of the donkey-ear abalone, Haliotis asinina reared in mesh cages (0.38×0.38×0.28m) suspended in flow-through tanks (water volume = 6 m3). Cages had sections of polyvinylchloride (PVC) that provided shelters with surface area of 0.22 m2, 0.44 m2 and 0.66 m2. Hatchery-produced abalone with initial shell length of 32 ± 1 mm and wet weight of 7.5 g were stocked at 50 individuals cage−1 that corresponded to stocking densities of ca. 227, 113 and 75 abalone m−2 of SSA. The ratios of shelter surface area to cage volume (SSA:CV) were 5.5, 11 and 16.5. Abalones were provided an excess red seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae (= Gracilaria heteroclada) at weekly intervals over a 270-day culture period. Feeding rates (18–20% of wet weight), food conversion ratio (26–27) and percent survival (88–92%) did not differ significantly among treatments (p > 0.05). Body size at harvest ranged from 56 to 59 mm SL and 52 to 57 g wet body weight with significant differences between abalone reared at SSA 0.22 m2 and 0.66 m2 (p < 0.05). Abalone reared in cages with 0.66 m2 SSA grew significantly faster at average daily growth rates of 132 μm and 188 mg day−1. Stocking densities of 75–113m−2 SSA in mesh cages suspended in flow-through tanks resulted in better growth of abalone fed red seaweed.
    • Conference paper

      Illuminated-cage nursery of the Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, (Centropomidae): effects of initial body size and stocking density 

      AC Fermin - In IC Liao & CK Lin (Eds.), Cage Aquaculture in Asia: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Cage Aquaculture in Asia, 2-6 November 1999, Tungkang Marine Laboratory, Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute, Tungkang, Taiwan, 2000 - Asian Fisheries Society; World Aquaculture Society - Southeast Asian Chapter
      This study was conducted to determine the appropriate initial body size and the corresponding stocking density of sea bass, Lates calcarifer, during nursery rearing in illuminated cages. Hatchery-produced sea bass fry of different initial sizes of 7.2 (day 15), 13.2 (day 22), and 15.2 mm (day 29) were stocked at densities between 300 and 1,500 m-3 in decreasing order with fish size. Nylon net cages (1x1x1 m) set in a protected sea cove area were individually lit at 300 lux using incandescent bulb placed at 1 m above water surface. Artificial lights attract wild zooplankton that served as prey to young sea bass. After 42 days of culture 22-day old sea bass fry with 13.2 mm TL initial size and stocked at 400 m-3 showed the highest growth (35.3 mm TL, 535.7 mg BW) and survival rates (64.4%). At a stocking density of 800 m-3, the survival rate was the second highest at 43%. Although day 15-fry at 7.2 mm TL initial size showed higher specific growth rates (11 % day-1) and size at harvest (29-31 mm TL, 346.2-374.4 mg BW), survival rates (11-15 %) were lower than the day 22- and 29-fry (30-64%). Calanoid copepods of the genus Calanus, Paracalanus and Acartia dominated the diet (81-90%) of sea bass at different size groups. Percentage number of shooters ranged from 0.5-1.4% of total stocks and were not significantly different among treatments. The present results indicate that sea bass should spend 21 days in the hatchery prior to nursery rearing in illuminated sea cages. Sea cages are inexpensive and more cost-effective than ordinary cage or earthen pond for sea bass fingerling production.
    • Conference paper

      Improved hatchery rearing techniques for the Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) 

      AC Fermin, MEC Bolivar, SBM Balad-on & JB Vargas - In P Lavens, E Jaspers & I Roelants (Eds.), Larvi '95 - Fish & Shellfish Larviculture Symposium, 3-7 September 1995, Gent, Belgium, 1995 - European Aquaculture Society
      Series: Special Publication; No. 24
      The Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus, is a popular freshwater foodfish in the Philippines. However, grow-out farming of this species is hampered by the lack of juveniles for stocking. A series of experiments on zooplankton feed density, weaning and stocking density were conducted in order to improve production of C. macrocephalus fry in the hatchery.
    • Article

      Larval rearing of bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis Richardson, using different types of feed and their combinations 

      AC Fermin & RD Recometa - Aquaculture Research, 1988 - Blackwell Publishing
      The effects of different types of feed, given singly or in combination, on the growth and survival of bighead carp, Arislichlhys nobilis Richardson, larvae reared for a period of 12 weeks were determined. Growth was highest for fish fed with the combination of Moina and artificial feed followed by fish fed with artificial feed alone. Significantly lower (P < 0.05) growth was found in fish fed with green water +Moina+ artificial feed; green water + artificial feed; green water +Moina and Moina alone, in a descending order. Carp larvae reared in green water alone did not survive after the fifth day of feeding. Specific growth rales ranging from 0.59% day−1 to 2.75% day−1 were exhibited by fish in all the remaining six treatments.

      Although green water alone did not support the growth of the larvae, enhanced survival rates were observed when green water was given in combination with other feeds. Survival rate was highest in fish fed with the combination of green water, Moina and artificial feed, but was not significantly different (P > 0.01) from those given Moina+ artificial feed. Consequently, normalized biomass index was significantly high (P < 0.05) in fish fed with the combination of green water, Moina and artificial feed.
    • Conference paper

      Research on molluscs and seaweeds 

      AC Fermin & AQ Hurtado - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This paper reviews the progress of mollusc and seaweed research at SEAFDEC AQD from 1995 to 1999. Because of the pressing need for seedstocks for stocking, research on the donkey s ear abalone, Haliotis asinina focused on the development of seed production and culture techniques. To improve the spawning performance and egg/larvae production of captive broodstock studies on reproductive biology, management of broodstock and development of diet were conducted. Studies to refine techniques for post-larval settlement and metamorphosis and development nursery rearing techniques were carried out to increase production of abalone juveniles. An artificial diet has been developed to enhance growth rates of juveniles during nursery as well as grow-out. However, since long-term use of artificial feeds did not favor the growth and survival of abalone during grow-out culture in tanks due to difficulties in maintaining water quality, sequential feeding with artificial diets and then seaweed Gracilariopsis bailinae seemed more practical.

      Broodstock development and seed production were the major research areas for the window-pane oyster Placuna placenta. Gonad development was enhanced by feeding a mixture of high densities of Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis tetrahele at a 3:1 ratio. P. placenta larvae reared with Isochrysis as feed showed best growth and survival. Settling stage was reached after 14 days of rearing. A salinity of 34 ppt was optimal for larval survival. Poor growth and survival of larvae was observed at low (10 ppt) and high salinity (40 ppt) levels. Re-stocking immature adults and juveniles was conducted in a depleted coastal bed to evaluate potentials for recruitment of the window-pane oyster. After 91 days, a survival rate of 51% was observed among immature adults. No juveniles survived after re-stocking.

      Studies on seaweeds focused on three economically important genera of red algae: (1) Gracilaria, (2) Gracilariopsis, and (3) Kappaphycus. These studies are in recognition of Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis as agarophytes and Kappaphycus as carrageenophyte having significant roles in the seaweed industry. Research studies therefore aimed to optimize culture techniques for and to develop environment-friendly aquaculture of these seaweeds. Optimization of biomass production was attempted by manipulating the nutrient environment, biomass density, the proportion of harvested biomass, and crop quality for conversion to agar and carrageenan. The use of G. bailinae as a bio-filter focused on the capacity of the seaweed and its agar to sequester heavy metals like cadmium copper, lead and zinc after exposure to various concentrations of these metals. Likewise, excess levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in a finfish broodstock tank with re-circulating water were reduced, demonstrating the efficiency of the seaweed as a bio-filter in aquaculture. Eco-physiological studies of Gracilaria changii, G. coronopifolia, G. firma, and G. bailinae involved the mass production of spores-in vitro as a possible source of seedlings for outplanting. A socioeconomic survey of Kappaphycus culture in the Philippines revealed that, although expensive, deep-sea farming of K. alvarezii using the multiple raft long-line technique was more productive and profitable than the traditional mono-line or the popularly practiced hanging long-line technique.
    • Conference paper

      Sociocultural factors influencing fishers’ participation in coastal resource management in Anini-y, Antique, west central, Philippines 

      MET Aldon, DH Tormon & AC Fermin - In LL Tolentino, LD Landicho, S Wun'Gaeo & K Ikegami (Eds.), 4th International Conference : the multidimensionality of energy, economy and environmental crises and their implications to rural livelihoods : September 7-10, 2010, Bicol University, Legazpi City, Albay, Philippines, 2010 - Asian Rural Sociology Association
      Fishing is the only source of livelihood in the coastal communities. This is the reason why poverty persists in these areas. The lack of other alternative livelihood activities results to overfishing and eventual degradation of fishery resources, thus, forming a vicious cycle of poverty and resource degradation. Recognizing the importance of promoting healthy and sustainable fisheries, SEAFDEC/AQD collaborated with the local government of Anini-y to develop a sustainable utilization of natural marine resources within the marine protected area at Nogas Island, Anini-y, Antique.

      This study determined the fishers’ sociocultural characteristics and how these variables influence their participation in the community’s coastal resources management activities. Primary data were collected from household survey using semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and in-depth interview with key informants. Means and frequencies were used to describe the fishers’ sociocultural and demographic characteristics while logistic regressions run by SPSS program was used to determine significance of relationships between sociocultural variables and extent of participation in coastal resources management. Results showed that age, gender, household size, distance from the shoreline, perceptions about coastal resources and fishers’ willingness to leave fishing did not significantly influence fishers’ participation in coastal resources management while fishers’ economic well being, attitude towards coastal resources and awareness level to fishery regulations showed significant influence.
    • magazineArticle

      Tropical abalone culture in Philippines 

      AC Fermin - Global Aquaculture Advocate, 2001 - Global Aquaculture Alliance