Now showing items 21-40 of 66

    • Article

      Fishing methods and gears in Panay Island, Philippines 

      G Kawamura & TU Bagarinao - Memoirs of Faculty of Fisheries Kagoshima University, 1980 - Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University
      The authors surveyed the fishing methods and gears in Panay and smaller neighboring islands in the Philippines in September-December 1979 and in March-May 1980. This paper is a report on the fishing methods and gears used in these islands, with special focus on the traditional and primitive ones.
    • Article

      From triphenyltins to integrated management of the 'pest' snail Cerithidea cingulata in mangrove-derived milkfish ponds in the Philippines 

      T Bagarinao & I Lantin-Olaguer - Hydrobiologia, 2000 - Kluwer Academic Publishers
      The potamidid snail Cerithidea cingulata is considered a pest in brackishwater milkfish ponds in the Philippines and has been controlled by the triphenyltin (TPT) compounds Aquatin and Brestan. But TPT is also toxic to other invertebrates, fishes, algae, bacteria and people, and high TPT residues occur in sea foods including milkfish. Thus, control of snails in milkfish ponds should be shifted from reliance on TPT to an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. To formulate a responsible IPM, studies were conducted on C. cingulata in ponds and mangroves and the available data were synthesized with the relevant information from the literature. The deposit-feeding C. cingulata is a native resident of mangrove areas and becomes a problem in mangrove-derived ponds where the lack of competitors and predators results in 'ecological release' and population explosion. Snail densities ranged 1–470 m−2 in the mangroves and 100–5000 m−2 in ponds. In ponds, snails ranged 2–40 mm in shell length; those 25 mm long and 8 mm wide weighed 1 g on average, and had 150 mg flesh. Snails matured at 20 mm long and reproduced the whole year with a peak in Mar–Sep at water temperatures of 24–36 °C. Enriched sediments and stagnant water in ponds allowed fast growth and reproduction, low dispersal and high recruitment of snails. Snails were very tolerant to hypoxia and adverse conditions, but were killed within a week by sun-drying or by salinities of 48–70‰ and within 3 d by ammonium phosphate at 10 g l−1 or urea at 5 g l−1. IPM of snails requires changes in mind sets and perspectives of milkfish farmers and industry supporters and changes in farm practices and management. Snails must be viewed as a resource from which income can be made and employment can be generated. Harvest of snails for shellcraft and other enterprises also effectively removes the spawning population. Complete draining and sun-drying of ponds after harvest kills the adult snails and the egg strings on the bottom. Snails in puddles in the ponds may be killed by the usual nitrogen fertilizers and lime applied during pond preparation. Water input may be timed with periods of low veliger counts in the supply water. These IPM recommendations have yet to be verified.
    • Article

      A fundamental study on the behavior of milkfish fry for improving the efficiency of traditional fry collecting gear in the Philippines 

      G Kawamura, S Hara & TU Bagarinao - Memoirs of the Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific, 1980 - Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific
      The reaction of milkfish fry to miving and stationary nets of different meshes and colors in an experimental tank was determined. The underwater visibility of the nets saw measured and the water filtration in a fry-sweeper was observed.

      Milkfish fry were both driven well by the moving nets and retained well by the stationary nets, with the fine-meshed black net most effective in both cases. The white and blue nets were found to be quite invisible to the fry in the blue-painted tank, particularly under contour lighting conditions; the black net was found to be very visible to the fry under both surface and contour light. The underwater visibility of the nets was found to vary with the sea conditions and the light direction. Water filteration in the fry-sweeper was found to be almost perfect.

      From the results, it was concluded that milkfish fry are caught by the moving fry collecting gear through driving and not by filtering. Since fry collection grounds are usually turbid, it was recommended that dark-colored materials be used for effective driving. It is also deemed much better to use larger mesh nets in the wings of the fry gear to minimize net resistance in the water and facilitate operation.
    • Article

      Fundamental study on the behavior of milkfish fry for the evaluation of the efficiency of traditional fry collecting gears in the Philippines 

      G Kawamura, S Hara & T Bagarinao - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1980 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The response of Chanos chanos fry to moving and stationary nets of different mesh size and colour, underwater visibility of the nets and water filtration were studied. Results indicate that milkfish fry may be driven by nets of mesh size larger than that presently used; larger mesh size decreases the net resistance in the water so that collectors may move the equipment easily. The large mesh nets should be of a dark colour, preferably black for effective driving; bowever white mosquito net is best for the core end, since the fry are more easily visible on a white background.
    • Article

      Gonadal maturation, fecundity, spawning and timing of reproduction in the mud snail, Cerithidea cingulata, a pest in milkfish ponds in the Philippines 

      I Lantin-Olaguer & TU Bagarinao - Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 2001 - Taylor & Francis
      Gonadal maturation, spawning, fecundity and timing of reproduction of the snail Cerithidea cingulata in a brackish water pond in Molo, Iloilo, Philippines, are described. Snails 4–41 mm in shell length were sampled monthly from May 1997 to May 1998; 25% were <25 mm, 67% were 20–30 mm, and 8% were >30 mm. The sexes are separate and could first be distinguished at 15 mm. Males are aphallic, have narrower shells than females of the same length, and have bright yellow-orange testes overlying the digestive gland deep inside the shell. Females have more robust shells, an ovipositor at the right side of the foot, and yellow-green ovaries overlying the digestive gland. The sex ratio was one male to two females in the pond population studied. Gonadal maturation was monitored by means of gonadosomatic index (GSI, gonad weight as a percent of visceral weight); maturation stages were based on the gonad appearance (immature, developing, mature) and histology (immature, developing, mature, redeveloping). GSI increased with snail size, and reached 16% in a 33-mm female. The smallest mature males and females were 18–19 mm, and most snails >20 mm were mature, spawning, or redeveloping. Histological sections showed all stages of gametogenesis in mature male snails. The oocyte size-frequency distributions in mature females showed mostly mature oocytes and secondary oocytes, but also oogonia and primary oocytes. GSI and the frequency of snails at different maturation stages varied over the year. Both GSI and the frequency of mature snails were highest during the summer months, April to August. Nevertheless, mature snails occurred throughout the whole year, as did mating and egg-laying. Fecundity (= number of oocytes >70 pμ) increased with size in mature females 2041 mm; an average 25-mm female produced about 1,500 oocytes and larger females produced a maximum of about 2,500 oocytes. Eggs strings laid on the pond bottom were 45–75 mm long; an average 64-mm string contained 2,000 eggs 210+20 pm in diameter. The density of eggs strings was highest (80–120/m2) during March-September. Eggs hatched after 6–7 d into planktonic veligers, which in turn settle on the pond bottom 11–12 d later as juveniles. Juveniles 2–6-mm long were most abundant in the pond during August-October.
    • Article

      Growth of juvenile milkfish Chanos chanos in a natural habitat 

      S Kumagai, TU Bagarinao & A Unggui - Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1985 - Inter Research
      A population of juvenile milkfish, C. chanos (Forsskaal) was studied in a small mangrove lagoon in Naburut Island, central Philippines. Several size groups of milkfish occurred in the lagoon as a result of its periodic connection with the sea. Body-weight to fork-length relation was: log W = - 5.2991 + 3.2388 log L, similar to that of pond-cultured specimens. In Naburut lagoon, juvenile milkfish take in primarily blue-green algae, as well as mangrove and seagrass debris, diatoms and detritus. The condition factor of fish caught during the day from May to Nov. stayed constant, indicating that lagoon conditions for growth in terms of food did not change markedly during the year. The monthly size-frequency distribution shows that juvenile milkfish in the lagoon grew at a rate of 7 to 9 mm wk super(-1) in 1979. Compared with pond-cultured specimens, their growth rate was lower during the first month but higher during the second month in the nursery. The limited area and depth of Naburut lagoon probably set the limit to the size of juvenile milkfish; these can be sustained there to just 150 to 180 mm fork length.
    • Book chapter

      Historical and current trends in milkfish farming in the Philippines 

      T Bagarinao - In SS De Silva (Ed.), Tropical Mariculture, 1998 - Academic Press
      This chapter focuses on the historical and current practices of milkfish farming in the Philippines. The Philippines ranks among the top 12 largest fish producers in the world and the milkfish, Chanos chanos, is the official national fish. The milkfish production in the Philippines has fluctuated sharply, but on average, has relatively stagnated over the past decade, partly due to the shrimp boom and low price of milkfish. The milkfish industry has been responsible for the significant loss of valuable mangrove swamps and forests. The loss of mangrove means loss of habitats and biodiversity including nursery grounds for feeding and refuge of commercial fishes, shrimps, crabs and mollusks. Milkfish ponds in the Philippines are either privately owned or leased from the government. Brackish water fish ponds are valuable real estate and good management adds to their value. For milkfish farming, stocking rate should be based on the pond environment and carrying capacity, and the fish size at stocking and the market size desired.
    • Book chapter

      Impact of fishpond management on the mangrove ecosystem in the Philippines 

      AS Camacho & TU Bagarinao - In Mangroves of Asia and the Pacific: Status and management, 1986 - Natural Resources Management Center and National Mangrove Committee, Ministry of Natural Resources
      Fishpond development in the Philippines is discussed, examining resulting impacts on the mangrove ecosystems. Socio-economical implications and management measures are also considered.
    • Book

      Important fish and shrimp fry in Philippine coastal waters : identification, collection and handling 

      TU Bagarinao, NB Solis, WR Villaver & AC Villaluz - 1986 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 10
    • Article

      An incidence of swimbladder stress syndrome in hatchery-reared sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae 

      T Bagarinao & P Kungvankij - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      This paper describes an incidence of swimbladder malfunction causing high positive buoyancy and mass mortality in 2-week-old sea bass (Lates calcarifer) larvae reared in an outdoor hatchery tank under conditions of high ambient temperature (26–32°C) and salinity (32–34‰), and a dense diatom bloom. The problem occurred soon after handling the larvae by seine and bucket, and seemed to have been a case of swimbladder stress syndrome (SBSS). The development of the swimbladder in sea bass larvae is briefly described.
    • Article

      Induced spawning and early life description of the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus 

      AC Emata, B Eullaran & TU Bagarinao - Aquaculture, 1994 - Elsevier
      Wild-caught mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, reared in a concrete tank for 1 year, spontaneously matured in June 1992. On 19 August 1992, a sexually mature female and male (4.6 and 3.2 kg body weight, respectively) were administered a single intramuscular injection of HCG 1500 IU·kg−1 body weight. Spawning occurred 27 h after injection. Hatching occurred 16 h after spawning at 28°C and 32 ppt. Yolk resorption was completed 72 h after hatching. Growth was slow in the first week but rapid in the second and third weeks. Egg and larval development is similar to that of other lutjanids. Larval rearing revealed two critical periods: days 3–5 and days 18–20. Future studies must be geared to avoid mass mortality of the larvae during the critical stages for mass seed production.
    • Conference paper

      The larval and juvenile fish community in Pandan Bay, Panay Island, Philippines 

      T Bagarinao & Y Taki - In T Uyeno, R Arai, T Taniuchi & K Matsuura (Eds.), Indo-Pacific Fish Biology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes: Conducted at the Tokyo National Museum Ueno Park, Tokyo, July 29-August 3, 1985, 1986 - Ichthyological Society of Japan
      Long-term (1975-1977) collections of larval and juvelnile fish were made from 1) onshore, a sandy beach flanked by a coral terrace and a river mouth, and 2) 500m offshore in 30 m deep water in Pandan Bay. About 70 species in 47 families were recorded onshore and 120 specis in 74 families were recorded offshore over the two-year period. About 60 species were common to both stations. Metamorphic stage Mugilidae dominated the onshore catch (75% of 587 samples), followed by Ambassis ssp. (55%) and Chanos chanos (48%). Predominant in the offshore station were larval Stolephorus spp. and Sardinella spp., occurring in 79% and 62% of 345 samples, respectively. Apogonidae, Leiognathidae, Gobiidae, Dussumieria sp., Caesio spp., Upeneus spp. larval, and the neotenic fish, Schindleria praematura, each occured in 20-40% of the offshore samples. Siganus spp., Lutjanus spp., Sphyraena spp. occured in considerable numbers onshore. Offshore, the first two species occured in higher, and the latter two in lower relative abundance. Mugilidae and Chanos chanos were also relatively less abundant offshore. Larvae of many inshore and pelagic fishery species like Carangidae, Scombridae and Bothidae occured at the offshore station together with larvae of coral reefs species like Pomacentrus spp. and the mesopelagic species like Benthosema spp. and Lestidiops sp.
    • Article

      The length-weight relationship, food habits and condition factor of wild juvenile milkfish in Sri Lanka 

      T Bagarinao & K Thayaparan - Aquaculture, 1986 - Elsevier
      Wild juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos) were obtained from Negombo lagoon in September 1984. Thirty-one specimens (92–186 mm FL) had a fork length-body weight relationship of log W = −5.6083 + 3.2598 log L. These fish were caught in the early morning and had empty guts. The mean condition factor (K) was 8.7. The intestine length to fork length ratio (I) was 3.7. Two large specimens (245 mm and 340 mm FL) caught around mid-day from the ocean off Negombo had full guts. Food was mostly blue-green algae, diatoms and detritus, with a number of copepods and nematodes. These fish had K values of 11.7 and 13.6 and I values of 8.1 and 8.5. The age and the month of spawning of these fish were back-calculated using known milkfish growth rates. It seems that in Sri Lanka, milkfish spawn from January to at least November.
    • Article

      Limit of colour vision in dim light in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

      G Kawamura, TU Bagarinao, ASK Yong, AB Faisal & LS Lim - Fisheries Science, 2018 - Springer Verlag
      Colour vision depends on sufficient ambient light and becomes ineffective at a particular low light intensity. It is not known how decapod crustaceans see colour in dim light. In the present study we investigated the colour vision threshold in larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a tank under natural illumination. Plastic beads of different colours (blue, red, yellow and white) in various combinations were suspended in the tank. The larvae swam straight toward the beads and gathered around them. The number of larvae was highest on the blue and white beads. The luminance in the tank was then gradually decreased by covering it with different numbers of layers of black cloth, and the response of the larvae to the beads was video-recorded under infrared illumination. The preference for blue and white beads remained manifest as the luminance was reduced from 418 to 0.07 cd/m2, but not at 0.02 cd/m2, indicating a colour vision threshold between 0.07 and 0.02 cd/m2. The larvae have apposition compound eyes with large optical parameters, comparable to those of apposition eyes of nocturnal insects, which presumably capture more light and show enhanced sensitivity, enabling the larvae to see colour in dim light.
    • Article

      Low pH affects survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of the postlarvae and early juveniles of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man 

      G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, CY Chen, SNM Noor & LS Lim - Ocean Science Journal, 2015 - Springer Verlag
      Acidification of rain water caused by air pollutants is now recognized as a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We examined the effects of low pH (control pH 7.5, pH 6, pH 5, pH 4) on the survival, growth, and shell quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles in the laboratory. Hatcheryproduced postlarvae (PL 5) were stocked at 250 PL per aquarium, acclimated over 7 d to experimental pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, and reared for 30 d. Dead specimens were removed and counted twice a day. After 27 d rearing, all specimens were measured for total length and body weight. Carapace quality was assessed by spectrophotometry. Survival of juveniles was highest at pH 6 (binomial 95% confidence interval 79 - 89%) followed by control pH 7.5 (56 - 68%) and pH 5 (50 - 60%) and was lowest for unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles at pH 4 (43 - 49%). The final median total length and body weight of juveniles were similar at control pH 7.5 (18.2 TL, 50.2 mg BW) and pH 6 (17.7 mm TL, 45.0 mg BW) but significantly less at pH 5 (16.7 mm TL, 38.2 mg BW); at pH 4, the postlarvae did not metamorphose and measured only 9.8 mm TL, 29.3 mg BW. Length frequency distribution showed homogeneous growth at pH 6, positive skew at control pH 7.5 and pH 5, and extreme heterogeneity at pH 4. The carapace showed different transmittance spectra and lower total transmittance (i.e. thicker carapace) in juveniles at pH 7.5, pH 6, and pH 5 than in unmetamorphosed postlarvae and juveniles with thinner carapace at pH 4. Thus, survival, growth, size distribution, and carapace quality of M. rosenbergii postlarvae and early juveniles were negatively affected by pH 5 and especially pH 4. The thinner carapace of the survivors at pH 4 was mostly due to their small size and failure to metamorphose. Natural waters affected by acid rain could decimate M. rosenbergii populations in the wild.
    • Article

      Low ph water impairs the tactile sense of the postlarvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

      G Kawamura, T Bagarinao, ASK Yong, SN Noor & LS Lim - Tropical Life Sciences Research, 2018 - Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
      The effect of low pH on the tactile sense of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae was determined in the laboratory by means of two behavioural assays: shelter (netting) occupancy and jumping response to touch stimuli (taps) by a glass micropipette. The postlarvae were acclimated to pH 4, pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.5 (control) in 45 L aquaria 5−7 d before the experiments. Shelter occupancy decreased with pH and was significantly lower at pH 4 and pH 5 than at pH 6 and in the control. The jumping response instantly followed a tap 93−98% of the time in the control, pH 6 and pH 5 treatments. However, the postlarvae showed significantly lower jumping response (65%) at pH 4, indicating an impaired tactile sense. Low pH 4−5 probably degrades the chitin of the sensory setae and inhibits the surface mechanoreceptors of the prawn postlarvae.
    • Conference paper

      Marine biodiversity at the SEAFDEC/AQD research stations in Iloilo and Guimaras, Philippines 

      TU Bagarinao - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Species inventories were recently made in and around the research stations of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department to facilitate subsequent monitoring. AQD s Tigbauan Main Station (TMS, since 1973) faces the deep open waters of the Panay Gulf and Sulu Sea and is flanked by densely populated fishing villages operating nearshore fish corrals, gillnets, longlines, and beach seines. In 2013 2014, sampling at the sand-gravel intertidal and monitoring of the catch of the various gears showed at least 579 species from 213 families, including 252 species of fishes, 228 mollusks, 48 crustaceans, 12 cnidarians, 9 echinoderms, 16 seaweeds, sea turtles, and sea snakes inhabiting the nearshore areas off TMS. Any adverse effect of the TMS hatcheries and laboratories is difficult to discern on top of the continuous intense fishing and habitat disturbance. AQD s Igang Marine Station (IMS, since 1980) is in a cove under the rocky cliffs of southern Guimaras, behind several islands facing the Panay Gulf and Sulu Sea. IMS includes 40 ha of seagrass beds and sandflats around five rocky islets and two 6 12 m deep basins where broodstock and growout cages are moored. IMS is flanked by many fish corrals operated by fishers who live in villages in nearby coves. Fishers on outrigger boats also use gillnets and spears, and others glean for mollusks and echinoderms inside IMS. In 2011 2012, some 786 species in 261 families were collected or photographed at IMS, including 74 species of fishes, 40 crustaceans, 391 mollusks, 44 echinoderms, 87 cnidarians, 47 poriferans, 24 ascidians, and 12 bryozoans, and sea snakes living among 48 seaweeds and 4 seagrasses. Biodiversity at IMS seems high despite 35 years of operation of the fish cages and the continuous fishing, gleaning, and boating by the locals. Several species of filter-feeding invertebrates grew on the cage nets and platforms but were not found in the natural habitats. The cages provide additional attachment surfaces for many species; these biofoulants presumably reduce water flow into the cages but they also remove nutrients and particulate wastes and help maintain good water quality. Nevertheless, siltation is evident under the cliffs inside the cove, and the sandflats may be expanding over the seagrass beds. AQD s 16ha Dumangas Brackishwater Station (DBS, since 1998) is flanked by freshwater Talaugis River, by hundreds of hectares of mangrove-derived fish ponds, and by Pulao Creek and an extensive mudflat with fringing mangroves at the northeastern end of Iloilo Strait. In 2009 2010, 16 ponds with water areas from 0.5 to 0.9 ha were sampled during harvest of the experimental crops. At least 90 species of non-crop fishes lived in the DBS ponds, along with 35 crustaceans, 60 mollusks, three echinoderms, two cnidarians, and a water snake. The snails Cerithideopsilla spp., Cerithium coralium, and Batillaria spp. were very abundant in the ponds. Almost all the same species in the ponds, plus many others, were found in the adjoining fringing mangroves with ~10 species of trees. The ponds serve as proxy for mangrove lagoons that harbor the young of migratory fishes as well as all life stages of resident species. Several non-crop species inside the IMS cages and the DBS ponds are harvested by the pond workers and contribute to nutrition and income. Aquaculture farms should be managed for high biodiversity to ensure sustainability. Ways are suggested for SEAFDEC/AQD to do so at its aquaculture research stations.
    • magazineArticle

      Milkfish 'fry' supply from the wild 

      T Bagarinao - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      The milkfish fry shortage in the Philippines and supply from fisheries and hatcheries 

      T Bagarinao - UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 1997 - University of Philippines in the Visayas
      This paper reviews the history and status of the milkfish fry fishery and hatchery and examines the issue of fry shortage in some detail. The fry fishery in the Philippines is a well developed industry that uses efficient indigenous technology, employs a quarter-million people, and provides income to local governments through fry ground concessions or fry gathering permits. The fry fishery is determined by where and when milkfish spawn. Fry perishability and the lack of an accurate accounting method shape industry practices and make it difficult to quantify the fry supply. Catch data are lacking, but the milkfish production of 100,000-240,000 mt indicate that fry catches ranged 0.8-2 billion a year during the past 25 years, and averaged at least a billion a year during the last five years. Milkfish farming has intensified in brackishwater ponds (especially in former shrimp farms) and has expanded into freshwater and marine pens and cages. However, there are no data on the farm areas currently under operation under different stocking rates, and fry requirements can only be roughly estimated for a given set of assumptions. If the Philippines double its current total milkfish production to 300,000 mt to support a larger population, then hatcheries would have to provide about one billion fry, in increments of perhaps 100 million a year, over the next decay. About 1000 females and 1000 males are required 100 million fry. Milkfish broodstock and hatchery technologies suitable for the Philippines have long been developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, but only recently caught the attention of Filipino hatchery operators and milkfish farmers. On the other hand, milkfish farming is market-driven and profit- motivated and intensification can not prosper when production cost is high and farm-gate price is low. Under these conditions, the fry shortage is not immediate and the private sector has time to establish milkfish broodstocks and hatcheries. Refinement are needed in a fry fishery, hatcheries, grow-out operations, post-harvest processing and marketing – to assure increased production and the sustainability of the milkfish industry.
    • Article

      The milkfish seed resources survey in Sri Lanka: Status, problems and recommendations 

      T Bagarinao - Journal of Inland Fisheries, 1986 - Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Sri Lanka
      A summary is provided of information concerning the milkfish (Chanos chanos) seed resources of Sri Lanka, highlighting problems related to seed collection. Various recommendations are made to overcome these problems and the following areas are covered: logistic aspects; technical aspects; seed supply; demand for seed; uneven sizes of seed; storage techniques; mortality; collection season; shore waters and other new collection grounds; development of collection methods and gear; and, identification of milkfish fry.