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      Growth, plasma cortisol, liver and kidney histology, and resistance to vibriosis in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus fed onion and ginger 

      MJS Apines-Amar, EC Amar & JP Faisan Jr. - Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation, 2013 - Bioflux
      The health-promoting effects of dietary onion and ginger were studied in brown marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary onion and ginger on growth, cortisol levels, histology and disease resistance in the fish. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain either onion (2%), ginger (2%), β-glucan (1%) or vitamin C (3%) and a control diet (without immunostimulants). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with an average weight of 10.85±0.69 g. Fish supplemented with either of the immunostimulants exhibited a significantly higher growth compared to the control group. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were significantly higher in the onion and ginger-supplemented fish than the control. Cortisol level was higher in the control compared to the immunostimulant-fed groups with onion and ginger-fed fish showing significantly lower cortisol levels. When experimentally infected with Vibrio harveyi, fish fed onion or ginger exhibited significantly reduced mortality when compared with the control and β-glucan, but not when compared with the vitamin C-fed group. Liver sections sampled 4 days postinfection showed no remarkable pathology except for the slight reduction in glycogen granules in the supplement-fed fish. The liver of non-supplemented infected fish showed necrosis, fatty globule deposition, vacuolation, and presence of short rod-shaped bacteria. Kidney sections in the supplemented groups, likewise, did not show significant pathology similar to the uninfected control, whereas those of infected control fish showed necrosis of the tubules and glomeruli resulting in severely altered morphology of the tissues and presence of bacteria in the necrotic areas. As a result of circumventing tissue damage, wound healing was faster in fish supplemented with ginger, onion, and vitamin C compared to the β-glucan and the control groups. This study showed the benefits of onion and ginger in promoting growth and alleviating stress and severity of vibriosis in grouper.