Now showing items 1-3 of 3

    • Book chapter

      Changes in the fish diversity and abundance on a heavily fished fringing reef on Santiago Island, Pangasinan, Philippines 

      JW McManus, CL Nañola Jr., RB Reyes Jr. & KN Kesner - In TU Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Fish assemblages on the reef slope, reef flat, and seagrass beds on Santiago Island were sampled over 18 months in 1992-1993 as part of a 6-year reef monitoring project started in 1986. Abundance and species diversity were analyzed by a variety of indices, and by multi-dimensional scaling and correlated ordered similarity matrix. The monitoring showed a distinct shift in the reef slope fish composition during the first half of 1988. Of the 100 most abundant species, 21 species showed significant reductions in abundance, and 20 species showed significant increases. Differences were not due to depth preference or feeding habits. Fishing pressure was apparently responsible for declines in Cheilinus trilobatus, Acanthurus nigricauda, and Naso literatus, as well as a general decline in the family Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes). However, analysis of site preferences of the decreasing species and the increasing species indicated a shift in community composition from those species preferring more coral cover to those preferring more sand, rock, and possibly Sargassum seaweed. Site preferences were determined from benthic life form transects done in 1992. Of 35 significantly changing species for which habitat data was obtained, 24 fit the hypothesis of habitat change. This supports the proposition from previous studies that the major cause of change in the reef slope fish community was the destructive fishing activity associated with Malthusian overfishing. Similar analyses of the fish assemblages on the reef flat and on the seagrass beds showed seasonal effects, particularly in the latter, but no strong shift comparable to that of the reef slope. These latter areas had been subjected to greater fishing pressure for a longer period.

      Reef fish populations such as those in Bolinao tend to be highly resilient provided the larval supply is not adversely affected. However, subtle changes in the cover of coral on a reef can lead to major changes in the composition of the fish community. Coral cover is being widely diminished on Philippine reefs, and substantial changes in the fish communities may be anticipated, even on reefs with initially low coral cover. These changes may affect the utility and immediate value of the fish to local fishers and the market systems they supply. It is of great urgency to stop destructive fishing practices such as blasting and use of cyanide, and to develop anchoring methods that are minimally destructive.

      There is a strong predictive relation between the numbers of fish (abundance) in an area and the numbers of species (biodiversity) they include. As fish populations decline due to destructive fishing, or highly concentrated non-destructive fishing, the local species richness may be expected to decline. This decline may have serious short-term social and economic consequences, as well as far-reaching long-term environmental effects. Efforts to reduce overfishing must be intensified—though reduction of birth rate, provision of alternative livelihoods, and curbing of destructive fishing — in order to prevent a very distressing future for the Philippine marine environment and the people it supports.
    • Article

      Effect of nematode Panagrellus redivivus density on growth, survival, feed consumption and carcass composition of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson) larvae 

      CB Santiago, M Ricci & A Reyes-Lampa - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      The study aimed to determine the optimum density of free-living nematodes in feeding bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, larvae. In the first experiment, carp stocked at 25 larvae L−1 were fed varying levels of nematodes (50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 per ml) twice a day for 21 days from the start of exogenous feeding. Final body weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in larvae fed 125 and 150 nematodes per ml than in those fed 50 and 75 per ml, but survival was low (61.8 and 63.6%, respectively). Survival rate was highest in larvae fed 100 nematodes ml−1 (81.3%). Carcass analysis showed that larvae fed 125 and 150 nematodes ml−1 had significantly lower body protein and higher body lipid than those fed other nematode densities. Carcass ash was similar for larvae fed 50–100 nematodes ml−1 but it decreased significantly at the higher nematode densities. Carp larvae in a subsequent experiment were given 50, 75 and 100 nematodes ml−1 per feeding. Newly hatched Artemia was the control feed. Nematode consumption and growth of the larvae were determined. Larvae were sampled at intervals of 2–4 days and the nematodes in the gut were counted and measured. At each nematode density, the number of nematodes present in the gut of the larvae increased significantly with time. At each sampling day, the number of nematodes in the gut did not differ significantly among treatments (P > 0.05) although it tended to increase with nematode density at day 2 and day 4 but decrease at day 7 onward. The carp larvae consumed significantly shorter nematodes on day 2 and day 4 than on the succeeding sampling days regardless of nematode density. However, the length of nematodes in the gut of the larvae did not differ significantly among the nematode densities. The final body weight of larvae increased with increasing nematode density. The body weight of larvae fed 100 nematodes ml−1 did not differ significantly from that of larvae given Artemia nauplii. Results show that bighead carp larvae should be fed 100 free-living nematodes per ml at each feeding time.
    • Conference paper

      Identification of mud crab species in coastal areas of Pangasinan 

      RB Cerezo & MC Tapia - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The study was conducted to identify the mud crab species (Scylla spp.) that thrive in 12 coastal municipalities and 2 cities in Pangasinan. Ten mud crab samples were taken from each of the sampling site and classified based on Keenan et al. (1998). Likewise, the abundance and differences in size and weight of the mud crab samples were determined. The study showed that there are only three mud crab species, Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea, found in the coastal areas of Pangasinan. S. serrata was the most abundant species (54.28%), followed by S. tranquebarica (24.28%) and S. olivacea (22.14%). Crabs weighing more than 300 g (~.12 cm carapace width or CW) were obtained from the municipalities of Anda, Bolinao, Dasol, Burgos, Bani, Agno, Alaminos and Infanta. These municipalities are geographically situated in coastal areas where S. serrata are found. Crabs weighing below 300 g (~.12 cm CW) were collected from the municipalities of Sual, Labrador, San Fabian, Lingayen, Dagupan and Binmaley. These towns have mangrove areas and low saline waters where S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea thrive.