Browsing by Subject "By catch"
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Ocean and Coastal Management, 2006 - ElsevierThe wide variety of goods and services provided by the coastal zone (food, medicines, nutrient recycling, control of flooding, typhoon protection) account for its many uses (fisheries, aquaculture, agriculture, human settlements, harbors, ports, tourism, industries). Aquaculture now provides a third of total fisheries production. Half of the total aquaculture yield comes from land-based ponds and water-based pens, cages, longlines and stakes in brackish water and marine habitats. But the opportunities for employment, income and foreign exchange from coastal aquaculture have been overshadowed by negative environmental and social effects. The environmental impacts include: mangrove loss, bycatch during collection of wild seed and broodstock, introductions and transfers of species, spread of parasites and diseases, misuse of chemicals, and release of wastes. The socioeconomic impacts include: privatization of public lands and waterways, loss of fisheries livelihoods, food insecurity, and urban migration. The paper gives recommendations on the attainment of responsible and sustainable aquaculture with emphasis on herbivorous and omnivorous species, polyculture, integration with agriculture and mangroves, and self-regulation in the form of codes of conduct and best management practices. Recommended approaches include holistic Integrated Coastal Zone Management based on stakeholder needs, mechanisms for conflict resolution, assimilative capacity of the environment, protection of community resources, and rehabilitation of degraded habitats, to improvements in the aquaculture sector pertaining to management of feed, water, and effluents.
Book- 2014 - Marine Wild Fauna Watch of the Philippines, Inc.This manual addresses the lack of information materials on how to deal with marine turtle encounters in the Philippine seas to ensure that the proper treatment and intervention is provided. The manual also responds to the Comprehensive Action Plan for Threatened, Charismatic, and Migratory Species of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME), which has been identified as the first priority seascape the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI). The Tri-National Committee of the SSME developed the Comprehensive Action Plans (CAP) that identified seven Key Result Areas (KRAs) to improve the status of marine turtles in the SSME, as follows: (a) Identify best practices in minimizing threats to marine turtle populations and their habitats; (b) Develop and implement nesting habitats and management programs to maximize hatchling production and survival; (c) Provide recommendations on specific features or criteria in marine protected area (MPA) design and MPA network design in relation to the protection and management of marine turtles in SSME waters; (d) Undertake initiatives to promote reduction of incidental capture and mortality of marine turtles; (e) Conduct turtle population habitat research and monitoring protocols; (f) Develop guidelines for MPA network design for marine turtles; and (g) Publish information to promote best practices and successes for marine turtle conservation. This manual is an important step to address gaps and issues on threatened marine wildlife in the Philippines to better protect and conserve marine biodiversity in the Coral Triangle.
Proteolytic enzyme activity of juvenile Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), is increased with protein intake -
Aquaculture Research, 2002 - Blackwell PublishingThe effect of high dietary protein intake on proteolytic enzyme activity of feeding juvenile Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) was studied. Ninety fish [mean body weight ± standard error (SE) 304.62 ± 34.84 g] were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, each with three replicates. In treatment 1, fish were fed by-catch (Thunnus albacares) and in treatment 2, a formulated diet containing 50% protein. Proteolytic enzyme activity was determined in pyloric caecae and intestine at day 0, 7, 15, and 30. Initial proteolytic enzyme activity in sea bass ranged from 174 to 232 azocasein units (UAC.) per mg of protein. After 7 days there was no significant difference in proteolytic enzyme activity of fish fed the two diets. However, a marked increase was observed in fish fed the formulated diet at day 15. After 30 days, the proteolytic enzyme activity in fish fed the formulated diet was threefold higher than that in fish fed the by-catch diet. Fish fed the formulated diet had significantly higher total protein intake at day 7 than did fish fed by-catch. Thereafter, a twofold weekly increase in the total protein intake was observed in both fish fed the by-catch and formulated diets until day 30. These results suggest that a high dietary protein intake induces increased proteolytic enzyme activity in Asian sea bass.
The sea turtles captured by coastal fisheries in the northeastern Sulu Sea, Philippines: Documentation, care, and release -
Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 2011 - Herpetological Conservation and BiologyThis paper presents the first substantive data on sea turtles in the northeastern Sulu Sea. Working with fishers and government, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC FishWorld) documented 109 juvenile and adult sea turtles captured or stranded around Panay and Guimaras Islands, Philippines from 2001 to mid- 2011. These included 65 Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas), 15 Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), 24 Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), three Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), and two Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta). From the four fishing villages within 1 km of FishWorld came 29 Green Turtles, eight Olive Ridleys, and one specimen each of the three other species. Approximately 77% of the Green Turtles were caught in nearshore fish corrals, mostly between October and May; whereas, 75% of the Olive Ridley Turtles were caught in offshore gill nets and long lines between April and October. Seventy-nine captured turtles were released, 73 of them with inconel flipper tags. Several turtles died from entanglement, serious injuries, slaughter for market, or diseases. An Olive Ridley Turtle and three Green Turtles were seen nesting at three beaches in southern and western Panay. Nesting of Hawksbill Turtles has been recorded at secluded beaches in Lawi, Guimaras about every three years; several batches of hatchlings have been raised by local residents before being released. Size-specific growth rates of Green Turtles and Hawksbill Turtles were highest among post-hatchlings and decreased sharply with size among juveniles and adults.