Now showing items 1-5 of 5

    • Article

      Microsatellite and mitochondrial haplotype diversity reveals population differentiation in the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Indo-Pacific region 

      EM You, TS Chiu, KF Liu, A Tassanakajon, S Klinbunga, K Triwitayakorn, LD de la Peña, Y Li & HT Yu - Animal Genetics, 2008 - International Society for Animal Genetics
      The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is an ecologically and economically important penaeid species and is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. Here we investigated the genetic diversity of P. monodon (n = 355) from eight geographical regions by genotyping at 10 microsatellite loci. The average observed heterozygosity at various loci ranged from 0.638 to 0.743, indicating a high level of genetic variability in this region. Significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium caused by heterozygote deficiency were recorded for most loci and populations. Pairwise FST and RST values revealed genetic differentiation among the populations. Evidence from the assignment test showed that the populations in the West Indian Ocean were unique, whereas other populations examined were partially admixed. In addition, the non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated the presence of three geographic groups in the Indo-Pacific region, i.e. the African populations, a population from western Thailand and the remaining populations as a whole. We also sequenced and analysed the mitochondrial control region (mtCR) in these shrimp stocks to determine whether the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic differentiation. A total of 262 haplotypes were identified, and nucleotide divergence among haplotypes ranged from 0.2% to 16.3%. Haplotype diversity was high in all populations, with a range from 0.969 to 1. Phylogenetic analysis using the mtCR data revealed that the West Indian Ocean populations were genetically differentiated from the West Pacific populations, consistent with the microsatellite data. These results should have implications for aquaculture management and conservation of aquatic diversity.
    • Article

      Nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Laguna de Bay, Philippines 

      SF Baldia, AD Evangelista, EV Aralar & AE Santiago - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2007 - Springer Verlag
      Phytoplankton supports fisheries and aquaculture production. Its vital role as food for aquatic animals, like mollusks, shrimp, and fish cannot be overemphasized. Because of its contribution as a food source for fish, the growth kinetics of Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant cyanobacterium in the lake, was studied. The regular occurrence of M. aeruginosa is experienced during the months of May to July or from September to November in Laguna de Bay, the largest freshwater lake in the Philippines. M. aeruginosa was collected from Laguna de Bay, isolated, and established in axenic conditions. Data on the growth kinetic parameters for nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus utilization by M. aeruginosa gave the following values: half-saturation constant (Ks), 0.530 mg N. L−1 and 0.024 mg P. L−1 respectively; maximum growth rate (μmax), 0.671. d−1 and 0.668. d−1 respectively; maximum cell yield, 6.5 and 6.54 log, cells. ml−1 respectively; nutrient level for saturated growth yield, 8.71 mg N. L−1 and 0.22 mg P. L−1 respectively; and minimum cell quota (Q0), 2.82 pg N. cell−1 and 0.064 pg P. cell−1 respectively. The low Ks value and high maximum growth rate (μmax) for phosphorus by M. aeruginosa would suggest a high efficiency of phosphorus utilization. On the other hand, the high Ks value for nitrogen indicated a low rate of uptake for this nutrient.
    • Article

      Practical techniques for mapping small patches of mangroves 

      JP Altamirano, JH Primavera, MRN Banaticla & H Kurokura - Wetlands Ecology and Management, 2010 - Springer
      Practical mapping methods employing GPS field surveys and manual image analyses with affordable software were used to assess two mangrove sites in Aklan Province, NE Panay Island, central Philippines. The Jawili mangroves, absent from current maps, actually included 21.5 ha with 24 true mangrove species. On the other hand, the Batan Estuary mangroves, shown to be 4244 ha in available topographic maps, revealed only 406 ha of scattered patches. Actual mangrove data on specific areas worldwide is limited, especially in the Philippines where available maps show discrepancies from actual mangrove distribution. Remote sensing (RS) techniques provide promising results but require expensive setup, particularly for small areas. Therefore, financially limited users need affordable and rapid mapping alternatives. The practical techniques presented here can be immediately implemented at minimal cost and can produce useful estimates of actual mangrove area, fundamental for coastal management. Basic principles used here also have potential applications in other systems and locations. When resources are available though, additional confirmation and precise mapping are also further recommended.
    • Article

      Socio-cultural context of fishers’ participation in coastal resources management in Anini-y, Antique in west central Philippines 

      MET Aldon, AC Fermin & RF Agbayani - Fisheries Research, 2011 - Elsevier
      The vicious cycle of poverty, overfishing and resource degradation in coastal communities in the Philippines calls for action that will address the problem of declining fish catch and degraded fish habitats. The literature has shown that an efficient and effective coastal management program can be instrumental in approaching this problem. In order to secure food and livelihood of fishers, the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center/Aquaculture Department collaborated with the local government of Anini-y, Antique to develop a sustainable utilization of natural marine resources through sea ranching of abalone within the Nogas Island marine protected area. Establishing a marine protected area is a means of conserving natural stocks while sea ranching is considered an effective strategy that can increase fishery resources. The two management schemes are considered as effective coastal resources management strategies. The success of a sea-ranching project is dependent not only on biophysical but also on socioeconomic factors as determinants of community participation and cooperation. A social assessment was conducted to determine the fishers’ socio-cultural characteristics, their perceptions of their coastal resources and knowledge on how to effectively manage these coastal resources. The fishers’ awareness on fishing regulations and the extent of their participation in community's coastal resources management activities were also determined. Data were collected from a household survey using a semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with key informants. The fishers generally scored low in almost all aspects of their socioeconomic wellbeing. Most fishers perceived that their coastal resources were in a bad condition which they attributed to illegal and commercial fishing, increasing number of fishers and the poor enforcement of fishery regulations. However, the weighted mean scores of their knowledge on coastal resources management, awareness to fishery regulations and participation in community coastal resource management activities were average. This implied that fishers when trained and developed can become potential partners for effective coastal resources management programs.
    • Book chapter

      Understanding community-based aquaculture through participatory approaches 

      RF Agbayani - In Handbook for Regional Training on Community-Based Aquaculture for Remote Rural Areas of Southeast Asia, 2008 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center