Browsing by Subject "Fats"
Now showing items 1-5 of 5
Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
Series: ACIAR Monograph 110This study was conducted to determine the quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in grouper diets, based on their nutrient composition and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD). A total of 56 juveniles were used for the 1st batch of test ingredients (Chilean fish meal, white fish meal, shrimp meal, defatted soyabean oilmeal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal). 54, 72 and 48 juveniles were used for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th batches of test ingredients (squid meal, local meat and bone meal, meat solubles, soya protein concentrates and rice bran; tuna fish meal, imported meat and bone meal, blood meal, maize gluten meal and wheat flour; and poultry feather meal, lupin seed meal and maize germ meal, respectively). Apparent digestibility coefficients were measured in vivo. The apparent digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 37-99%. Squid meal and meat solubles had the highest coefficients, whereas blood meal had the lowest. The APD of all feed ingredients tested were relatively high (79-99%), except for rice bran (43%) and blood meal (15%). ADMD values varied with the levels of fibre and other carbohydrate substances in the feed ingredients. Groupers could utilize dietary protein efficiently regardless of whether it was of animal or plant origin. High APD values were generally obtained in feed ingredients with high protein content. Low digestibility coefficients for feed ingredients could also be attributed to the processing methods used in their preparation.
Aquaculture, 2003 - ElsevierA feeding experiment was conducted to determine apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), crude protein (ACPD), crude fat (ACFD), crude fiber (ACFbD), nitrogen-free extract or NFE (ANFED), and crude ash (AAD) of selected feed ingredients for mud crab, Scylla serrata. The nine feed ingredients were Peruvian fish meal, squid meal, Acetes sp., meat and bone meal, copra meal, wheat flour, rice bran, corn meal, and defatted soybean meal. A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF diet and 30% of the feedstuff) were used with Cr2O3 as external indicator. The ADMD of the RF and test diets were high except for diet with meat and bone meal. Crude protein, crude fiber, and ash of feedstuffs were digestible in mud crab. Nutrients in squid meal, corn meal, and defatted soybean meal were digested well (ACFbD>95%; ANFED>92%; AAD>71%) compared with nutrients in the meat and bone meal. The AAD of copra meal, wheat flour, rice bran, and meat and bone meal were similar. The ACFD in carbohydrate-rich plant feedstuffs were significantly higher than that in protein-rich animal feedstuffs. For this species, the relative amounts of dietary protein and NFE in feedstuffs had an effect on the ACFD but not on ADMD.
Effect of feed binder on water stability and digestibility of formulated feed for the mud crab Scylla serrata - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe binding capacity of six natural and eight synthetic feed binders were tested in a basal diet formulated for the mud crab. Incorporation levels of natural binders ranged from 1 to 25% while those of synthetic binders ranged from 0.1 to 5% and these were tested for pellet stability in seawater by a) 10-min immersion, and b) at different time intervals. Pellets with synthetic binders were more water-stable than pellets with natural binders. Three synthetic binders and natural binders (glutinous rice starch and carrageenan + CMC) showed best results. The Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC) of crude protein (ADCCP) and crude fat (ADCCFt) of the basal diet were determined when selected feed binders were included in the formulation. These were determined by using an inert indicator, chromic oxide. Results showed that the ADCCP and ADCCFt of the basal diet were not similar when different binders were used, and these differences ranged from 3 to 7%. Carrageenan combined with a synthetic binder improved ADCCP and CDCCFt values.
Partial replacement of fishmeal by defatted soybean meal in formulated diets for the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775) -
Aquaculture Research, 2004 - Blackwell PublishingThis study was conducted to evaluate the effect on growth and feed efficiencies of the mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) when dietary fishmeal is partially replaced by defatted soybean meal (DSM). In the preliminary experiment, snapper (mean weight±SD, 58.22±5.28 g) were fed in triplicate with different dietary amounts of DSM (7.8–42.2%) that were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. After 14 weeks, survival, growth and feed efficiencies, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ. Based on these results, a feeding trial was done using a positive control diet that contained 64% fishmeal, while the other four diets had DSM levels of 12%, 24%, 36%, and 48% that replaced fishmeal protein at 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% respectively. All diets were formulated to have about the same protein level (50%), protein to energy ratio (P/E of 25-mg protein kJ−1), and dietary energy (19.8 MJ kg−1). These were fed to triplicate groups of snapper (mean total weight tank−1±SD, 73.19±1.2 g) at 15 fish (average weight, 4.88 g) per 1.5-t tank for 19 weeks. Growth (final average weight and specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, and HSI were not significantly different (P>0.05) while protein efficiency ratios or PERs were similar in treatments with DSM. Among snapper fed DSM, haematocrit value was significantly lower in fish fed 48% DSM and not different with fish fed 36% DSM. Whole-body crude fat of snapper fed 48% DSM was lowest while the crude protein and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were highest. Histopathological analysis showed that lipid vacuoles in livers of snapper were reduced in size as dietary DSM increased. There was slight lipid deposition in the liver of snapper at 36% DSM while at 48% DSM it was excessive and hepatocytes were necrotic. There were no differences in the histology of snapper intestine. Under the experimental condition of this study, DSM can be used in snapper diets at 24% (replacing 25% of fishmeal protein) based on growth, survival and feed efficiencies, and histology of liver and intestine. For a lesser diet cost, an inclusion level higher than 24% DSM is possible with a bioavailable phosphorus supplement.