Now showing items 1-12 of 12

    • Book chapter

      Bacteria and toxin isolated from the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and production of monoclonal antibodies and diagnostic kits to monitor red tide and toxic mussels 

      TM Espino, RM Aspiras, NG Sabino, E Parreño, RL Macasadia & MLF del Mundo - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Six bacterial isolates obtained from the red tide dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum were found to be toxic. The most toxic isolate MM-11 was cultured, characterized, and identified to be Micrococcus luteus. MM-11 and M. luteus had similar DNA bands on agarose gel, and contained 70.0–75.5% mole G+C. Several Micrococcus species were isolated from pure culture and field samples of Pyrodinium and from red tide affected mussels. MM-11 and the other Micrococcus isolates tested positive for saxitoxin. MM-11 was grown on seawater agar; peak cell density of 1.36 x 1010 cells/ml occurred after 3 days of incubation. Toxin production was directly proportional to cell density. The crude toxin from the optimized culture of MM-11 resulted in death of mice in only 1.8–2.4 min, equivalent to a toxicity of 5.9–13.4 mouse units. MM-11 was inoculated into healthy mussels and yielded bacterial isolates that had characteristics of MM-11, and extracts of toxin similar to MM-11 toxin. Mice injected with extracts from the inoculated mussels showed symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning (dyspnea 12–15 min after injection), but did not die. Partially purified extracts from red tide affected mussels killed mice in 3.4 min, equivalent to a toxicity of 3.4 mouse units. Addition of 5, 25 and 50% coconut milk to this toxin extract reduced the toxicity to only 34%, 29%, and 25% of that without coconut milk. The ELISA test similarly showed reduction of saxitoxin concentration from 4.78 g toxin/g at 5% added coconut milk to 3.62 g toxin/g at 50% added coconut milk.

      PSP toxins were extracted from bacteria and red tide affected mussels. The 24 purified extracts of MM-11 toxin were shown by mouse bioassay to have concentrations from 0.6 to 71.6 μg toxin/g bacteria. Green mussels sampled from Bataan and Zambales during incidence of red tides from 1994 to 1998 contained lower amounts of toxin per unit weight than the bacterial extracts. Analysis of the MM-11 toxin by HPLC-fluorometry showed two fractions similar to those of standard gonyautoxin 1 and gonyautoxin 3.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial isolation, identification and storage 

      L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Bacterial isolation, purification and identification are the first steps to bacteriological studies. Isolation is done to obtain pure bacterial cultures. Bacteria are usually isolated from fish kidney and spleen; and from the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organ and muscles of shrimp. These tissues are monitor organs that usually harbor the disease-causing bacteria during infection.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mangrove crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & JJ dela Cruz-Huervana - 2018 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual includes the biology of crab (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea), and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs and rearing the zoea to ‘fly’ size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as the farming of this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - 2008 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual includes the biology of mud crab, and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea) and rearing the zoea to fly size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual describes the principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea) and rearing the zoeae to juveniles. Hatchery conditions should satisfy the ecological requirements of each specific stage, thus the manual starts with a section on biology of mud crabs.
    • Conference paper

      Identification of mud crab species in coastal areas of Pangasinan 

      RB Cerezo & MC Tapia - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The study was conducted to identify the mud crab species (Scylla spp.) that thrive in 12 coastal municipalities and 2 cities in Pangasinan. Ten mud crab samples were taken from each of the sampling site and classified based on Keenan et al. (1998). Likewise, the abundance and differences in size and weight of the mud crab samples were determined. The study showed that there are only three mud crab species, Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea, found in the coastal areas of Pangasinan. S. serrata was the most abundant species (54.28%), followed by S. tranquebarica (24.28%) and S. olivacea (22.14%). Crabs weighing more than 300 g (~.12 cm carapace width or CW) were obtained from the municipalities of Anda, Bolinao, Dasol, Burgos, Bani, Agno, Alaminos and Infanta. These municipalities are geographically situated in coastal areas where S. serrata are found. Crabs weighing below 300 g (~.12 cm CW) were collected from the municipalities of Sual, Labrador, San Fabian, Lingayen, Dagupan and Binmaley. These towns have mangrove areas and low saline waters where S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea thrive.
    • magazineArticle

      Identifying milkfish fry 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Identifying sea bass fry 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Identifying shrimp fry 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Identifying siganid fry 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Studies on the causative organism of Sarotherodon niloticus (Linnaeus) fry mortalities - 2. Identification and characterization of the physiological properties of Pseudomonas fluorescens 

      RC Duremdez & GD Lio-Po - Fish Pathology, 1985 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Identification and examination of the physiological characteristics of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from fry of Sarotherodon niloticus (L.) was conducted. Based on morphological and biochemical tests, the bacterium was identified to be a strain closest to Pseudomonas fluorescens. In vitro physiological growth patterns at varying temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH were observed for a maximum of eleven days incubation while growth of the test bacterium into various water media were observed for a maximum of 148 days. Bacterial growth occurred between 10° to 41°C with optimum growth at 25° to 30°C. The bacterium tolerated NaCl concentrations of 0 to 50 ppt. Optimum growth, however, was obtained from 0 to 15 ppt. It was found that growth was possible only at pH 5.0 to 9.7. Optimum growth occurred at pH ranging from 5.7 to 8.4. Inoculation of the test bacterium into different freshwater media obtained from various sources resulted in growth and rapid multiplication. Viability was maintained throughout the 148 day incubation period. Growth in the brackishwater medium was observed only until 50 days. No growth was observed in the seawater medium.
    • magazineArticle

      What needs to be done?: Guide in mangrove reforestation 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The article presents a two-part guideline in mangrove reforestation. The first part is zonation, which is the process of determining what species are particularly suited to plant in a particular site. While, plantation establishment is the second part, it includes guides in the identification of species, selection of planting site, preparation of the planting sites, seed collection, handling and transporting of seeds, and planting.