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    • Article

      Fate and location of Vibrio anguillarum in tissues of artificially infected ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) 

      K Muroga & MC de La Cruz - Fish Pathology, 1987 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) were infected with Vibrio anguillarum by a water-born method. At 6, 12, 18, 36, 38-45 (moribund stage) and 48 h (dead) after infection, fish were sampled to determine the fate and location of the bacterium in various tissues by viable cell count and the enzyme-labeled antibody technique (ELAT). V. anguillarum was first detected in the skin at 12 h by bacterial isolation. It appeared in the muscle, spleen and liver at 24 h, but was not isolated from the gills or intestine until 36 h or 38-45 h. The same trend in the fate of the pathogen was confirmed by ELAT, and the cells were found in dermal layer of the skin from the early stage (12h) of infection. Based on these observations it was concluded that the first colonization site of V. anguillarum in ayu was the skin.
    • Book chapter

      Immunological and molecular biology techniques in disease diagnosis 

      LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The improvement of existing immunoassay techniques, development of monoclonal antibody technology and the development of new immunoassay approaches are all working together to provide new tools for the detection of disease-causing organisms in fish and crustaceans. Following the introduction of nucleic acid hybridization technique and PCR, it was recognized that the methods offered a sensitive approach to the detection and identification of specific microorganisms as in the case of a bacterial or viral infection in a variety of sample types. Potentially, a characteristic DNA sequence from a single virus particle or cell of a particular organism can be amplified to detectable levels within a short period of time. Conventional diagnostic methods that involve the culture of microorganisms can take days or weeks to complete or very tedious to perform. PCR offers a rapid, very sensitive, very specific and simple alternative. Further developments in immunodiagnostics and emerging technologies such as DNA-based tests will revolutionize the detection and identification of infectious disease agents.