Now showing items 1-20 of 27

    • magazineArticle

      Anatomy of the prawn industry in crisis: Taiwan experience 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1989 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Aquaculture for genuine development 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1989 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Cambodia: mangrove-friendly aquaculture 

      S Sreymom - In JH Primavera, LMB Garcia, MT Castaños & MB Surtida (Eds.), Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture : Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, January 11-15, 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2000 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department
      Cambodia has 435 km of coastline with 85,000 ha of mangrove forest. A big part of the mangrove area is in Koh Kong province (63,700) where intensive shrimp culture activity is also concentrated. Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) farms occupy 850 ha, producing 450 tons/yr (1995). But lately, production decreased by 20% due to diseases and self-pollution. The government has since placed restrictions on shrimp farming.
    • Article

      Cell growth and nutritive value of the tropical benthic diatom, Amphora sp., at varying levels of nutrients and light intensity, and different culture locations 

      MR de la Peña - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2007 - Springer Verlag
      Two series of experiments were conducted to determine suitable growth factors for the mass propagation of the local algal isolate Amphora sp. A higher growth rate of 0.2 doubling (μ) day-1 was attained at a lower photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 11.4 μmol photon m-2s-1) compared to cultures exposed to higher levels of PPFD (16.1 μmol photon m-2s-1, −0.1 μ day -1; 31.3 μmol photon m-2s-1, 0.0 μ day-1). Cultures located inside the laboratory had a significantly higher cell density (133 × 104 cells cm-2) and growth rate (0.3 μ day−1) compared to those located outdoors (100 × 104 cells cm-2, 0.2 μ day-1). A comparison of nutrient medium across two locations showed that lipid content was significantly higher in cultures enriched with F/2MTM (macronutrients + trace metals) and F/2MV (macronutrients + vitamins). Saturated fatty acids were also present in high concentrations in cultures enriched with F/2M (macronutrients only). Significantly higher amounts of saturated fatty acids were observed in cultures located outdoors (33.1%) compared to those located indoors (26.6%). The protein, carbohydrates and n-6 fatty acid content of Amphora sp. were influenced by the location and enrichment of the cultures. This study has identified growth conditions for mass culture of Amphora sp. and determined biochemical composition under those culture conditions.
    • Article

      Changes induced in the gills of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål) fingerlings after acute exposure to nifurpirinol (Furanace; P-7138) 

      CT Tamse, RQ Gacutan & AF Tamse - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1995 - Springer Verlag
      The need for a chemotherapeutant used specifically for fish disease became increasingly apparent with intensive fish culture practices, and with the possibility of bacterial resistance against drugs used for human and animal medicine (Austin 1985). With this in mind, Nifurpirinol (trade name Furanace; P-7138) was developed by the Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan, and is currently manufactured in the United States as Prefuran. Studies have proven that the drug is effective against bacterial and fungal pathogens in a wide variety of aquatic animals. Most of the Nifurpirinol studies done in the past have dealt on its antimicrobial activity, tissue uptake, and effective treatment levels ranging from 0.5-2.5 mg/L. The 96-hr median lethal concentration (LC50) to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque) has also been determined at 0.945-1.90 mg/L, and at 1.70 mg/L for milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskaal. However, there have only been two studies that have examined the histological effects on treated fish. Histopathologically, Mitchell et al. (1978) found hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium in channel catfish gills exposed to 0.5 mg/L for 4 d or longer at 24 plus or minus 2 degree C, while Amend and Ross (1970) working at 21 plus or minus 1 degree C observed no apparent changes in the gills of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed intermittently to 1 mg/L of Nifurpirinol. This paper describes the histological changes observed in the gills of milkfish fingerlings used in static, 96-hr Nifurpirinol toxicity tests. Milkfish was used because of its economic importance as a widely cultured food fish in Asia. The gills were chosen as target organs.
    • Article

      A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines 

      JH Primavera - Reviews in Fisheries Science, 1993 - Taylor & Francis
      The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the attendant organic and nutrient overloading, longevity and toxicity of chemicals, development of antibiotic resistance, and introduction of exotic species. Most of the discussion is based on the Philippine experience, but relevant case studies from other shrimp‐growing countries, notably Thailand and Indonesia, and also from salmon cage culture in the temperate zone, are included.

      Ecologically and economically more viable, semi‐intensive culture is recommended as the key to the long‐term sustainability of the shrimp industry. Because the greatest impact of brackishwater pond culture (including shrimp farming) is the loss of mangrove habitats and their varied goods and services, massive reforestation of degraded areas should be undertaken. Other recommendations are the promotion of environmentally sound aquaculture technologies, e.g., seaweed and mollusc culture and the integrated forestry‐aquaculture‐fisheries management of mangrove plantations (tumpang sari) in coastal areas; enforcement of existing laws that protect remaining mangroves; and promulgation of new laws to regulate water use and waste disposal. Areas for future research include the prevention and control of pond wastes and shrimp diseases, and refinements of the Indonesian tumpang sari for adoption locally.
    • Article

      Culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879) in experimental cages in a freshwater eutrophic lake at different stocking densities 

      ML Cuvin-Aralar, EV Aralar, MA Laron & W Rosario - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879) juveniles (0.4 g) were cultured in experimental cages (L × W × H: 2.5 × 1 × 1 m) in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines. The following stocking densities at four replicates each were used: 15, 30, 60 and 90 prawns m−2 of cage bottom. The mean sizes at harvest after 5 months of culture ranged from 14.3 g for the highest stocking density to 26.3 g for the lowest. The mean size at harvest, daily growth rate and size class distribution were significantly influenced by stocking density, with those at the lowest stocking density showing significantly better growth and overall proportion of larger prawns. Heterogeneous individual growth (HIG) was fairly evident in all treatments. The percentage of blue-clawed males was not influenced by treatment but the mean weight was significantly higher in the lower stocking densities. Both the percentage and mean weight of berried females were significantly higher in the lowest stocking density. Survival was the highest in the lower stocking densities (55.3%, 54.0%, 52.7% and 36.9% for 15, 30, 60 and 90 prawns m−2 respectively). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved with decreasing stocking density, ranging from 2.1 to 3. As expected, yield per cropping increased with stocking density and ranged from 450 to 1089 g m−2 yr−1 of actual cage area. Production values obtained in the cage cultured M. rosenbergii were comparable to or even higher than those reported from pond culture, given that the stocking densities used in this study were generally higher than in ponds. The results show that the farming of M. rosenbergii in cages in lakes is a viable alternative to pond culture and has the potential of improve aquaculture production in lakeshore fish farming communities.
    • Book chapter

      Development of farming schemes following disease occurrences in monodon shrimp farming using intensive method in three Southeast Asian countries 

      T Matsuura, LD de la Peña, CP Ean, R Siow & AH Alias - In T Matsuura (Ed.), Comparative Analysis of Aquaculture Management in Brackish Mangrove Areas in Three Southeast Asian Countries, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Series: JIRCAS Working Report; No. 56
      All three countries experienced major progress in intensive shrimp farming at different ties. Intensive farming of monodon shrimp (Penaeus monodon, an indigenous species) was first launched by the Philippines, followed by Thailand, then by Peninsular Malaysia. The survey was conducted from 2000-2005. The disease-causing bacterial that seiously damaged monodon culture were luminous bacteria in the Philippines and white spot virus in Thailand and Malaysia. Production decreased because of these diseases in the mid-1990s in the Philippines and after 2000 in Thailand and Malaysia. In 1998, the Green Water System (hereinafter referred to as GWS) was developed, and a proportion of culture ponds introduced it and resumed monodon culture using the intensive method. In Thailand, the vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei, an exotic species from South America) has now replaced monodon previously raised using the extensive method. In Malaysia, monodon is cultured using only the intensive method, and some culture pond enterprises started to culture vannamei instead of monodon in 2004. In the Philippines, companies engaging in monodon culture have many ponds and lower stocking density because they culture large-size shrimp, but are exposed to high running costs such as fuels and probiotics. On the other hand, in Thailand, individuals engaging in monodon culture have few ponds and higher stocking density since they culture small-scale shrimp. Labor costs are low because most of the work is done by family member.
    • Article

      Economic analysis of prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in the Philippines, II: Grow-out operations 

      U Hatch, R Agbayani & E Belleza - Asian Fisheries Science, 1996 - Asian Fisheries Society
      The dramatic fall in prawn (Penaeus monodon) prices coupled with environmental concerns has resulted in a relative stagnation of prawn grow-out operations in the Philippines. Leaders of the Philippine aquaculture sector are concerned that their cost of production is higher than that of their close competitors in Indonesia and Thailand. Also, the environmental and production crash experienced in Taiwan has led to a general perception that intensive culture cannot be sustained. The sector recently experienced a lack of direction and growth, combined with crowded water sheds, excessive use of water bodies, overuse of groundwater and continued destruction of mangrove.

      A field survey of prawn growers was conducted in August-October 1992 using a standardized economic questionnaire that included costs, returns and growers perceptions of constraints. Economic estimates were developed for representative production systems; intensive, semi-intensive, extensive and prawn-milkfish rotation.

      The incentive to expand the prawn pond area is not strong. Existing intensive facilities can be operated efficiently and profitably, but new intensive operations will most likely need to include water treatment capabilities for water entering and exiting grow-out ponds. Canals, reservoirs or ponds used for water quality improvement may be able to concurrently produce a profitable crop, such as milkfish-prawn rotation. Internal rate of return for semi-intensive ponds using earthen ponds was higher than for other culture systems. If, over time, water quality and conservation constraints are sufficiently addressed, stocking densities might be increased. Research and extension programs targeting equity should focus on integrated systems.
    • Book

      Environment-friendly schemes in intensive shrimp farming 

      DD Baliao - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 31
      The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has been successfully raised by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Technology Verification and Extension Section at its Dumangas Brackishwater Station. The approaches in the culture method employed in the series of verification runs in the brackishwater station are documented to serve as an interim guide for shrimp growers while these are still being further refined and standardized.
    • Article

      Growing the reproductive cells (carpospores) of the seaweed, Kappaphycus striatum, in the laboratory until outplanting in the field and maturation to tetrasporophyte 

      MRJ Luhan & H Sollesta - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2010 - Springer Verlag
      Carposporophytes of the seaweed, Kappaphycus striatum, from the wild were made to shed spores in the laboratory and grown in multi-step culture method until they reached maturity. For each succeeding transfer onto increasingly bigger culture vessels, there was a marked increase in the growth of carposporelings. When plantlets were ready for outdoor culture, they were placed in aquaria and concrete tanks and later moved to the sea in net cage and long-line for grow-out culture. Successfully growing sporelings from carposporophytes in the laboratory until they reach market size seems to depend on the stage of sporelings and environmental factors such as photoperiod and temperature. In this study, carpospore progenies (diploids) also matured into tetrasporophytes and haploid progenies showed resistance to higher temperature.
    • Article

      Influence of stocking density and fertilization regime on growth, survival and gross production of Penaeus monodon Fabricius in brackishwater ponds 

      PF Subosa & MN Bautista - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Twelve 0.1 ha earthen ponds were stocked at 3,500 or 7,000/ha with 1-month old nursery reared Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1.73 g). Fertilizer treatments were 125 kg chicken manure plus 4.1 kg diammonium phosphate (18-46-0) and 6.56 kg urea (45-0-0) per application for treatments U3500 and U7000 and 125 kg chicken manure plus 8.15 kg diammonium phosphate and 0.89 kg urea per application for treatments P3500 and P7000. Fertilizers were broadcast 10 days after pest eradication and every two weeks thereafter. Water was exchanged (20%) one day before fertilization throughout the 86-day culture period. Shrimp yields at harvest were: P7000, 193.6 kg/ha; P3500, 119.4 kg/ha; U3500, 97.5 kg/ha; and U7000, 82.4 kg/ha. Mean survival for each treatment was 96.2%, 97%, 89.3% and 75%, respectively. There were significant differences in shrimp yields at harvest among treatments (p < 0.05).
    • Book

      Intensive culture of milkfish Chanos chanos in polyculture with white shrimp Penaeus indicus or mud crab Scylla serrata in brackishwater earthen ponds 

      GS Jamerlan, RM Coloso & NV Golez - 2014 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 57
      A 30-page extension manual describing the biology, site selection, pond management and harvest & post-harvest of milkfish intensive polyculture in earthen pond.
    • Book

      Intensive culture of sea bass, Lates calcarifer Bloch, in brackishwater earthen ponds 

      GS Jamerlan & RM Coloso - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 46
      An extension manual describing criteria for site selection, monoculture and polyculture operations including feeds and feeding, harvest, common diseases, economic analysis.
    • Article

      Intensive prawn farming in the Philippines: ecological, social, and economic implications 

      JH Primavera - AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 1991 - Springer Verlag
      The benefits of intensive farming of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon in the Philippines are discussed in relation to the environmental costs. Ecological effects include mangrove conversion into ponds; use of antibiotics and chemicals leading to drug resistance; dumping of pond effluents which affect neighboring ecosystems; and pumping of groundwater that causes saltwater intrusion and vulnerability to floods. In addition, these effects lead to social costs in the form of reduction in domestic and agricultural water supplies; decreases in the production of foodfish and other food crops; further marginalization of coastal fishermen; displacement of labor; and credit monopoly by big businessmen. Comparative economic analyses of three prawn-farming systems showed that, compared to extensive and intensive culture, semi-intensive farms give the best performance using undiscounted (payback period, return on investment) and discounted (net present value, internal rate of return) economic indicators. With a 20% fluctuation in inputs or selling price intensive farming will no longer be profitable because of the high variable cost. The paper concludes with recommendations for strict enforcement of existing government guidelines (e.g. ban on mangrove conversion); institution of new policies on the use of groundwater, seawater and public credit; diversification of cultured species; and emphasis on semi-intensive farming parallel with brakes on further intensification of prawn farming.
    • Article

      Low-cost feed for Penaeus monodon reared in tanks and under semi-intensive and intensive conditions in brackishwater ponds 

      OM Millamena & AT Triño - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      Experimental diets for juvenile Penaeus monodon were formulated incorporating inexpensive indigenous raw materials. Local fish meal and cowpea meal were tested as replacements for imported protein sources and the diets did not contain vitamin and mineral premixes as supplements. Their effect on shrimp growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio were assessed under laboratory conditions. Best weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio were obtained in the diet with 75% replacement of protein from imported fish meal with local fish meal. This diet was field-tested in brackishwater ponds at three stocking densities: 5, 10, and 20 shrimp m−2. Results of two experimental runs in ponds showed that shrimp growth and survival was best at the lowest stocking density (5 m−2) and poorest at the highest stocking density (20 m−2) when 3% of shrimp became soft-shelled. Net pond production for 2 crops ha−1 year−1 were 1.87, 2.58, and 3.66 t ha−1 at 5, 10, and 20 m−2 stocking density. Cost-benefit analysis revealed a net return on investment (ROI) of 133, 58, 26% and payback periods of 0.7, 1.6, 4.0 years at stocking densities of 5, 10, 20 m−2, respectively. The low-cost feed, valued at P17 (US$0.70) kg−1, can effectively support pond production of P. monodon at a stocking rate of 5–10 m−2.
    • Book chapter

      On-farm feed management practices for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Philippines 

      MRR Romana-Eguia, MA Laron & MR Catacutan - In MR Hasan & MB New (Eds.), On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture, 2013 - Food and Agriculture Organization
      Series: FAO fisheries and aquaculture technical paper; No. 583
      The contribution of the Philippines to tilapia production in Asia has increased steadily in the past five years as it addresses hunger and poverty alleviation in the region. Commercial tilapia aquaculture in the Philippines has improved as farmers have become aware of the importance of adopting innovative husbandry technologies. These include the use of intensive culture, using novel feed ingredients, improving the quality of industrial aquafeeds, adopting cost- effective feeding strategies and efficient pond fertilization methods, and culturing improved genetic strains. A case study was conducted to: a) assess current tilapia feed management practices; b) determine recent nutrition-based innovations that include the use of alternative feed ingredients, the adoption of nutritionally complete commercial tilapia feeds, and improvements to feed management practices; and c) evaluate these factors in terms of improved production efficiencies. Thirty-two farmers from selected tilapia cage hatcheries, pond hatcheries, grow- out cages and ponds in Regions III and IV-A (known major tilapia producing regions in the Philippines) were interviewed. The issues addressed included their farm management practices, with particular focus on tilapia feed preferences; quality, procurement and storage methods; and feeding strategies. Their responses were collated and analysed in the context of information simultaneously gathered from the scientific literature, popular publications and relevant websites. The results from the case study highlight the importance of farmers being trained and remaining well-informed about recent improvements in feed technologies and the use of efficient cost-saving feeding strategies to optimize the production of seed and marketable tilapia. Recommendations on how to increase tilapia production through improved feed and feed management practices are described. Finally, recommendations for local regulatory agencies to implement aquafeed quality and nutrient standards are provided.
    • Article

      Plantlet regeneration of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. adik-adik by tissue culture 

      AQ Hurtado & AB Biter - Journal of Applied Phycology, 2007 - Springer Verlag
      Three color morphotypes of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. adik-adik (brown, green and red) collected from a farming area in Tictauan Is., Zamboanga City, Philippines were used as explants in the study in order to micropropagate ‘new’ plants. Individual sections of sterile Kappaphycus alvarezii var. adik-adik, initially cultured in a 48-well culture plate containing ESS/2 + E3 + PGR, released callus cells after 4–5 days of incubation at 23–25°C, 13:11H LD cycle and 10–15 μmol photons m−2 s−1 light intensity. True calli were formed after 29–35 days following dense formation of filaments or undifferentiated round cells at the medullary and inner cortical layers of the section. Plantlets (2–3 mm long) of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. adik-adik were able to regenerate after 98, 150 and 177 days in-vitro among the reds, greens, and browns, respectively. This study established successful methods for the production and regeneration of tissue explants of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. adik-adik which can possibly be used to mass produce ‘new’ cultivars for land- and sea-based nurseries as sources for commercial farming.
    • magazineArticle

      Seawater irrigation system for intensive marine shrimp farming in Thailand 

      S Tookwinas & D Yingcharoen - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The aim of the seawater irrigation system (SIS) is to clean up shrimp pond effluent and provide high quality seawater for shrimp farming. The system has 3 components: water intake; treatment reservoir and discharge system. There are criteria for site selection because shrimp farmers are required to form associations so they can work closely together. The construction site must be on the coastal area outside a mangrove forest and located away from a production agricultural area. All construction sites must have undergone an environmental impact assessment, and should be located on the area listed in Thailand's Coastal Zone Management Plan.

      Five SIS projects, which cover a culture area of 6,500 ha with 1,300 farmers (families), were completed and operated. The Department of Fisheries has planned for another 28 projects, that will cover almost 44,000 ha of culture area.
    • magazineArticle

      Socioeconomic effects of intensive cage culture 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discusses the socioeconomic effects of intensive aquaculture which is in conflict with other forms of coastal development such as, industrial development, natural fisheries, tourism and recreation, and nature conservation.