Browsing by Subject "Iron"
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Accumulation and excretion of metal granules in the prawn, Penaeus monodon, exposed to water-borne copper, lead, iron and calcium -
Aquatic Toxicology, 1994 - ElsevierJuveniles of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, were exposed for 10 days to 1 mg/l copper, lead, iron or calcium in order to investigate the formation and accumulation of metal granules in major soft tissues as well as their excretion from the body. Metal deposition was investigated by histochemistry and electron microscopy in the hepatopancreas and surrounding organs and tissues like the stomach, midgut, anterior midgut caecum, thoracal antennal gland extensions, haematopoietic tissue, and interspersed musculature, connective tissue and pigment tissue. The abundance of metal granules varied greatly between the metals and the tissues. Iron and calcium deposits were found in none of the tissues investigated. Copper granules were accumulated in high quantity in the hepatopancreas tubules, were scarce in the antechamber of the hepatopancreas, the anterior midgut and the anterior midgut caecum, and were lacking in the other tissues. The amount and size of copper granules increased along the hepatopancreas tubules in accordance with the cells' age. The granules were released by discharge of senescent hepatopancreas cells in the antechamber region and were added to the faeces. Lead granules were primarily found in the thoracal extensions of the antennal gland. In the hepatopancreas they occurred only in very small quantities, and in the other organs and tissues they were absent. In the antennal gland, the lead granules were individually discharged into the gland lumen by apocrine secretion and excreted with the urine. The observed ability of Penaeus monodon to detoxify and remove metals like copper and lead by granule formation and excretion and to prevent other metals like iron from entrance into major soft tissues corroborate that decapods are no suitable organisms for a long-term biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution.
Book chapter- In OM Millamena, RM Coloso & FP Pascual (Eds.), Nutrition in Tropical Aquaculture: Essentials of fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding of tropical aquatic species, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThis section discusses the macro, micro, and trace minerals; their physiologic functions; and deficiency signs and symptoms. It also gives a summary of the mineral functions and mineral requirements of fishes and shrimp.
Fisheries Science, 1999 - Japanese Society of Fisheries ScienceSix semi-purified casein based diets were formulated to contain either a complete mineral mixture (control) or mineral premixes from which a specific test mineral was deleted to obtain phosphorus(P)-free, magnesium(Mg)-free, iron(Fe)-free, zinc(Zn)-free, or manganese(Mn)-free diets. These diets were fed to juvenile milkfish (mean initial weight 2.60±0.08g) for a 22-week experimental period. Final mean percent weight gain ranged from 1022 to 1379% with P-free (1022%) and Fe-free (1066%) diets obtaining a significantly lower weight gain (p<0.01) than the control diet (1270%). Survival was greater than 90% and did not differ significantly among treatments. Upon termination of the growth experiment, milkfish flesh, bones, and combined samples of head, skin, and scales were dissected and analyzed for ash, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Mn content. The deletion of P or Fe from mineral mixture lowered P content in flesh and bone. Zn content in bone of fish was also lowered by exclusion of Zn, Mn, Mg or Fe. The result of this study demonstrated that it is necessary to supplement P and Fe even to semi-purified casein based diets.