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    • Article

      Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites 

      Z Xu, JH Primavera, LD de la Peña, P Pettit, J Belak & A Alcivar-Warren - Aquaculture, 2001 - Elsevier
      Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite loci were polymorphic. A total of 184 different alleles were found over all loci. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 54, with allele size ranging from 159 base pairs (bp) to 400 bp. The observed heterozygosity of the six loci ranged from 0.47 to 1.00. The number of genotypes per locus ranged from 5 to 70. Fst values showed significant genetic differentiation among the four wild populations. Genetic differences between wild populations were also detected by pairwise comparison based on genotypic and allelic frequencies. Genetic differentiation among wild populations exhibited a positive correlation with mangrove status and intensity of culture systems at P=0.083. The Negros Occidental-W population, which originated from an area with the most severe mangrove loss and the most intensive culture systems, was the most significantly differentiated population. It also showed less genotypes per locus than the other three wild populations, suggesting a decrease in genetic diversity in this population. The population from Capiz, a province with a wide area of extensive culture ponds and few remaining secondary mangroves was the second most differentiated population. The Quezon population, which originated from an area with a few extensive culture ponds and less mangrove destruction, was not genetically different from the Palawan population, which was from a pristine site with mostly primary mangroves and no major aquaculture industry. The cultured populations showed less genetic diversity and were significantly different from the four wild populations based on pairwise Fst values and pairwise comparisons of allelic and genotypic frequencies. The results suggest that (a) there was a significant genetic differentiation among the wild P. monodon populations in the Philippines, and (b) the cultured populations were significantly differentiated from the natural populations. More replicate samples from each of the geographic regions are needed to conclusively determine the possibility of an association between genetic differentiation and the status of mangroves and/or intensity of shrimp culture systems.
    • Book | Conference publication

      International Milkfish Workshop Conference, May 19-22, 1976, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department, & International Development Research Centre - 1976 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Terapontidae), reared in mesocosms 

      FA Aya, MNC Corpuz, MA Laron & LMB Garcia - Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 2017 - Szczecińskie Towarzystwo Naukowe
      The silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), is an endemic and economically important freshwater food fish in the Philippines. The natural populations of this species have been declining during the past years, mainly due to intense fishing pressure, habitat degradation, and introduction of invasive alien species. At present, it is considered a target species for domestication and conservation efforts. Despite several attempts of artificial reproduction and larval rearing, little is known on larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon. The presently reported study was therefore intended to fill this gap in the knowledge by determining the growth and describing body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation of this fish. Newly hatched larvae were reared in mesocosm tanks at a mean temperature of 29.5°C. Larvae up to 30 days after hatching were sampled at irregular intervals and preserved in 5% buffered formalin. Early development stages for 245 preserved specimens were described in detail with reference to changes in morphology, growth and body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation. Five developmental stages of silver therapon were identified: yolk sac larva (1.88 mm TL), preflexion (2.51 mm TL), notochord flexion (4.50-8.27 mm TL), postflexion larva (6.90-12.21 mm TL), and early juvenile (>13.40 mm TL). Growth was isometric for eye diameter and gape size whereas positive allometry was observed for body depth, head length, and preanal length. Some body proportions showed abrupt changes from preflexion to postflexion larvae before it stabilized during the early juvenile stage. Pigmentation in the form of stellate and punctate melanophores increased with developmental stage, with larvae becoming heavily pigmented from postflexion to early juvenile stage. These morphological changes, together with the full complement of fin rays and squamation observed in specimens larger than 13.4 mm TL, suggest the attainment of the juvenile stage of this species. These morphological changes may explain the food and feeding habits during the early life stages of silver therapon which is critical to their survival and recruitment in the wild and in a mesocosm hatchery environment.
    • Article

      Transport of hatchery-reared and wild grouper larvae, Epinephelus sp. 

      CB Estudillo & MN Duray - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      Optimum packing conditions for the transport of hatchery-reared and wild grouper larvae were investigated under simulated condition or actual air transport. Simulation of transport motion was done through the use of an electric orbit shaker to identify the best packing conditions for the transport of grouper larvae at various ages. Simulated transport was conducted in hatchery-reared grouper larvae at day 35 (mean TL=14.73 mm), 45 (mean TL=15.23 mm) and 60 (mean TL=28.16 mm) at packing densities of 50, 100 and 200 larvae l−1 and at high (28 °C) or low (23 °C) temperatures. Packing density of 50 larvae l−1 was best for 45- and 60-day-old larvae 8 h transport at low temperature. However, packing density could be increased to a maximum of 100 larvae l−1 8 h transport at 23 °C with mortality rates ranging from 2.3% to 5.3%. The increase in total NH3 level was dependent on temperature, packing density and size of larvae. High packing density (100–200 larvae l−1) and temperature (28 °C) resulted in increased NH3 level and mortality rates during transport. In addition, regardless of the temperature, NH3 levels were consistently higher for 60-day-old larvae. Day-60 grouper larvae displayed strong resistance to handling/mechanical stress compared to 35-day-old larvae probably because most are already fully metamorphosed at this stage. Based on these results, a packing density of 50 larvae l−1, a temperature of 23 °C and larval age of 60 days were considered as the best transport conditions for hatchery-reared grouper larvae. When these transport conditions were used in experiment 2, for 26-day-old hormone-metamorphosed, 60-day-old naturally metamorphosed or 60-day-old pre-metamorphosing hatchery-reared grouper larvae, a 100% survival rate was attained in all treatments. Seven days of hormone (T3) treatment did not accelerate metamorphosis of wild-caught transparent grouper larvae (tinies) significantly. Survival rates of hormone-treated transparent tinies (H-tinies), untreated black tinies (B-tinies) and untreated transparent tinies (T-tinies) were also similar after 8–9 h air transport (experiment 3). The results of the current study suggest that T3 treatment did not affect the performance of hatchery-reared and wild-caught transparent tinies/larvae during transport. In addition, mass mortalities of these transported tinies during the nursery phase were associated with nutritional aspect and the sudden confinement of these undomesticated wild-caught grouper to small space rather than transport or hormone treatment effects.