Now showing items 1-7 of 7

    • Article

      Extension of nursery culture of Scylla serrata (Forsskål) juveniles in net cages and ponds 

      EM Rodriguez, FD Parado-Estepa & ET Quinitio - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      To address the preference of mud crab farmers for larger size Scylla serrata juveniles (5.0–10 g body weight or BW; 3.0–5.0 cm internal carapace width or ICW), a study was conducted to compare the growth and survival of crab juveniles (2.0–5.0 g BW; 1.0–3.0 cm ICW) produced a month after stocking of megalopae in net cages when reared further in net cages installed in earthen ponds or when stocked directly in earthen ponds. In a 3 × 2 factorial experiment, three stocking densities (1, 3 and 5 ind m−2), two types of rearing units (net cages or earthen pond) were used. Megalopae were grown to juvenile stage for 30 days in net cages set inside a 4000 m2 brackishwater pond and fed brown mussel (Modiolus metcalfei). Crab juveniles were then transferred to either net cages (mesh size of 1.0 mm) or earthen ponds at three stocking densities. After 1 month, no interaction between stocking density and rearing unit was detected so data were pooled for each stocking density and rearing unit. There were no significant differences in the growth or survival rate of crab juveniles across stocking density treatments. Regardless of stocking density, survival in net cages was higher (77.11±6.62%) than in ponds (40.41±3.59%). Growth, however, was significantly higher for crab juveniles reared in earthen ponds. The range of mean BW of 10.5–16.0 g and an ICW of 3.78–4.33 cm obtained are within the size range preferred by mud crab operators for stocking grow-out ponds.
    • Article

      Formalin as an alternative to trifluralin as prophylaxis against fungal infection in mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) larvae 

      JB de Pedro, ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      The toxicity of formalin and trifluralin to the larval stages of the mud crab Scylla serrata was compared in a static bioassay. Prophylactic doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μg L−1 formalin and 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 μg L−1 trifluralin were used. Toxicity was assessed on the basis of survival of larvae after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure to the test chemicals and metamorphosis to the next larval stage. Result shows that larval survival in all stages was significantly reduced at concentrations of 20 and 25 μg L−1 formalin whereas larvae were able to tolerate all trifluralin treatments. However, larvae became more tolerant to high formalin concentrations as the larval stage progressed. Survival was better at 5, 10 and 15 μg L−1 formalin and in all trifluralin treatments than the control in almost all the larval stages. Faster metamorphosis was observed at 5 and 10 μg L−1 formalin and 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 μg L−1 trifluralin concentrations. Doses of formalin and trifluralin obtained from the toxicity experiments were applied as prophylaxis to newly hatched larvae in white plastic basins. Prophylactic doses of 5 and 10 μg L−1 formalin and 0.05 and 0.1 μg L−1 trifluralin applied every other day were found to be effective in enhancing survival and larval development to megalopa compared with control. However, no megalopae survived to crab instar in all formalin treatments. Although the use of fungicides in rearing systems resulted in higher survival compared with controls, other strategies (i.e. maintenance of good water quality and hygienic practices in the hatchery) should be further investigated as an alternative to the use of chemicals in hatcheries.
    • Article

      Notes on the completion of the life cycle of Penaeus japonicus in captivity in the Philippines. 

      ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & E Coniza - Philippine Journal of Science, 1991 - Science and Technology Information Institute
      Penaeus japonicus nauplii from wild spawners were reared up to the early postlarval stage (PL20) in 12-t concrete tanks. A survival rate of 13-15% was obtained. Hatchery-reared postlarvae were restocked in concrete tanks for grow-out. After six months, survival rate was 49.3% with mean body weight of 20 g and carapace length of 21-33 mm. Ablated and unablated females were stocked together with males at 1:1 sex ratio in broodstock tanks. After three months, 11% of the ablated prawns spawned whereas 1.4% of unablated females spawned after five months. Nauplii from these spawnings were reared up to the adult stage thus completing the life cycle of J. japonicus in captivity.
    • Article

      Ontogeny of feeding apparatus and foregut of mud crab Scylla serrata Forsskål larvae 

      GJ Lumasag, ET Quinitio, RO Aguilar, RB Baldevarona & CA Saclauso - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      The development of the feeding apparatus of the mud crab Scylla serrata larvae was studied using electron microscopy for mandibles and light microscopy for other paired mouthparts and the foregut. The six paired mouthparts, which consisted of the mandibles, maxillules, maxillae, first maxillipeds, second maxillipeds and third maxillipeds, were dissected from specimens representing each larval stage. The first five paired appendages were already present in newly hatched larvae while third maxillipeds appeared only at the megalopa stage. Mandibles displayed complex incisor and molar processes at early zoeal stages, which became simple in morphology at megalopa. Mandibular palp buds were observed at the zoea 5 stage and these became fully developed as three-segmented mandibular palps at the megalopa stage. Endopods of other paired mouthparts exhibited increased number of setae and size as the individual metamorphosed from zoeal stages to megalopa and crab instar. The foregut appeared as a continuous cavity at zoea 1 where the cardiopyloric valve was indistinct while the filter gland was clearly identifiable. Zoea 2 and succeeding zoeal stages exhibited a setose foregut; the gastric mill and its lateral and median teeth were prominent at zoea 3 stage. The significance of these morphological changes is discussed in terms of its implication in larval feeding management.
    • Article

      Ovarian maturation stages of the mud crab Scylla serrata 

      ET Quinitio, J de Pedro & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Ovarian maturation in adult wild-sourced and pond-grown Scylla serrata (Forsskål) was determined based on gross morphology and histological appearance. There were no significant differences noted in the histological features of both wild and pond-reared S. serrata females. Ovarian maturation was classified into five stages: immature, early maturing, late maturing, fully mature and spent. The immature ovaries are thin and translucent to off white and contain oogonia, primary oocytes with large nuclei. The follicle cells were found around the periphery of the lobes and an area among groups of oogonia and oocytes. The follicle cells gradually enclosed the oocytes. The early-maturing ovaries were yellow and small yolk globules started to appear in larger oocytes. In late-maturing ovaries, the colour became light orange and lobules were apparent. Yolk globules occurred in the cytoplasm with larger globular inclusions towards the periphery, while follicle cells were hardly recognizable. Fully mature ovaries were orange to deep orange and had swollen lobules. Large yolk globules were apparent in the entire cytoplasm. Follicle cells were hardly seen. Spent ovaries were similar to the early-maturing and late-maturing stage in partially spawned females. The ovarian development was correlated closely to the gonadosomatic index, oocyte diameter, and ovarian histology. The classification of ovarian maturation provides baseline information for further studies on reproductive biology. Likewise, the information provides a guide for broodstock management in the hatchery.
    • Article

      Reproductive performance, lipids and fatty acids of mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) fed dietary lipid levels 

      VR Alava, ET Quinitio, JB de Pedro, ZGA Orosco & M Wille - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Natural food (NF, control), artificial diets (AD) containing total lipid levels of 10%, 12% and 14% (AD10, AD12 and AD14) and their combinations (AD10+NF, AD12+NF and AD14+NF) were fed for 112 days to pond-sourced eyestalk-ablated mud crab Scylla serrata (625±6.4 g) in tanks in order to determine their effects on reproduction and lipid profiles in broodstock tissues and zoeae. Crabs fed NF had the highest number of spawning followed by crabs fed AD10+NF and AD14+NF. Higher offspring production (number of zoeae) was obtained from crabs fed NF and AD+NF than from AD. As dietary total lipid levels increased, total lipid of broodstock ovaries, hepatopancreas, muscle and zoeae correspondingly increased in which AD+NF promoted higher levels than AD. Increased dietary total lipid levels enhanced lipid classes such as triacylglycerols and phosphatidyl choline levels in zoeae, all higher in crabs fed AD+NF than in AD. The major fatty acids in zoeae, particularly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9 and 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, were higher in crabs fed AD+NF than in AD, the contents corresponding to broodstock dietary total lipid levels. A 10% total lipid in AD in combination with NF was sufficient to provide the essential lipids in crabs in the improvement of larval production and quality.
    • Article

      Seed production of Charybdis feriatus (Linnaeus) 

      FD Parado-Estepa, ET Quinitio & E Rodriguez - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Charybdis feriatus (Linnaeus) were investigated to identify suitable techniques for broodstock management and seed production. Likewise, factors such as ablation, water depth and light requirements affecting survival or reproductive performance were tested. Production of megalops in tanks and juveniles in net cages installed in earthen ponds was conducted. Wild-caught berried females produced a significantly higher number of zoeae per gram body weight (BW) of the female (3300±600) than captive spawners (867±58). Ablated and unablated crabs spawned after a month and ovaries of both had oocytes in all developmental stages after spawning, indicating that ablation was not necessary. Broodstock survived higher when stocked in 1 m-deep water and kept in dark conditions compared with shallow (0.5 m depth) water or ambient lighting. There were six zoea and one megalopa stage. Megalops were produced (survival of 2–22% in 1 tonne or 23–55% in 3 L tanks) when methods for the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) were used, but feeding with Artemia started only at the Z4 stage. Survival of megalops after 1 month was higher when stocked in net cages installed in an earthen pond (32–82%) than when reared continuously in land-based tanks (5–11%).