Browsing by Subject "Rainy season"
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Philippine Journal of Science, 2013 - Science and Technology Information InstituteThree stream sections (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Tayabas River, Philippines were surveyed during the wet and dry seasons of 2010 to evaluate the poorly known status of freshwater fish assemblages. The study collected a total of 1,070 individuals comprising 15 species, 13 genera, and 8 families. The three most abundant groups were poeciliids (61.85%), gobiids (26.16%), and cichlid (5.51%). Shannon-Weiner’s diversity indices ranged from 1.270 to 2.171. Relatively high Shannon evenness indices (0.653–0.846) and low Simpson’s dominance values (0.142–0.322) were calculated implying a fairly equitable distribution of niche space for dominant and non-dominant fishes. Significant change on fish assemblage in longitudinal gradient was observed (p<0.05), being the most diverse fish assemblage registered in the upstream. Species richness is mostly composed of native fish species (10 species) and mainly represented by stream gobiids (six species). The downstream, however, had the highest cumulative abundance, in which the larger proportion was from introduced species. Also, wet season had considerably more fish species and individuals relative to dry season (p<0.05). This significant spatio-temporal differences in fish assemblage data were evaluated by multivariate analyses (p<0.05). Canonical correspondence analysis identified the depth (seasonal water level fluctuations), vegetation growth, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (in order of importance) as the most influential environmental parameters affecting fish assemblage structure. Also, climatic stress (prolonged drought) and anthropogenically-induced habitat alteration could negatively affect the integrity of freshwater fishes within the river. The study suggests extensive management programs of the river for the protection of native fish species.
Seasonal gonad cycle of the climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Teleostei: Anabantidae) in a tropical wetland -
Ichthyological Research, 2015 - Springer VerlagSeasonal reproduction of the climbing perch Anabas testudineus in the Candaba wetland, Philippines, is described. Monthly specimens were collected, gonads and viscera excised, and the gonads histologically examined. Low mean female gonadosomatic index [GSI (%)] from September to February (0.3–2.1 %) increased in March (8.7 %), peaked in May (10.9 %), and declined in June (3.3 %), but increased again in July and August (8.3–5.5 %). Male GSIs (at least 1 %) were low from September until May, increased in June (2.5 %), and then declined thereafter. All the six oocyte and four spermatogenic cell development stages were observed in the gonads throughout the annual cycle. The ovary was dominated by primary growth oocytes (chromatin nucleolus, perinucleolus) from August to February (77–90 %), but yolky oocytes (previtellogenic, vitellogenic) comprised 15 % to 28 % of the ovary from March to July. Mature oocytes were present for most of the year, comprising 40 % of the total oocytes in March-April, peaking in May (50 %), but declining to 30 % in June–July. Spermatozoa consistently dominated the testis throughout the annual cycle, particularly in November and March (58 %). Food intake in both sexes was generally low during the dry season (December–April) when gonad activity was also low, but started to increase at the onset of the wet season (May–November) when gonad activity began to peak. These results demonstrate that the climbing perch gonads exhibit asynchronous development, allowing a protracted breeding season with intense gonad activity timed at the onset of the wet season, concurrent with increasing food intake through the rest of the season.