Browsing by Subject "Saccharides"
Now showing items 1-2 of 2
Conference paper- In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterNon-specific immune activitation is considered a potential prophylactic approach in the prevention of disease outbreaks in crustacean aquaculture. The present investigation evaluates the dietary supplementation of bacterial and algal derived immunostimulants including peptidoglycan, ergosan, mannan oligosaccharide and acidic polysaccharides from Ulva, Sargassum and Padina to enhance the immunological responses and resistance of Scylla serrata juveniles against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Each of the test immunostimulant was optimized for dose and frequency of administration.Results showed significant enhancement of shrimp survival against WSSV infection if Mannan oligosaccharide is supplemented at 2000 mg kg-1 diet applied every 3 days. Optimum dose and frequency of application for peptidoglycan was determined as 1000 mg kg-1 diet applied every 3 days while a dose of 2000 mg kg-1 diet applied every 3 days was found optimum for ergosan. Enhancement of survival was also observed in crabs given the acidic polysaccharide extracts from seaweeds. Better survival was observed in the treatment receiving Ulva at 1000 mg kg-1 applied every 3 days. Similar dose and frequency were also observed to enhance the resistance of the juvenile crabs against WSSV when maintained with diets supplemented with Padina and Sargassum acidic polysaccharides. The high survival in these treatments is associated with the prominent enhancement of immunological responses including phenol oxidase activity, respiratory burst and total hemocyte counts. At optimum dosage and application frequency, these immunostimulants are observed to improve overall growth performance of the juvenile crab. These results suggest that dietary supplementation of peptidoglycan, ergosan mannan oligosaccharide, and acidic polysaccharides from Ulva, Sargassum and Padina at a dose described above can be used to boost the immunological response and enhance the resistance of S. serrata juveniles against WSSV infection.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology, 1984 - Elsevier1. Morphological properties of fish intestines vary with diet. Carnivores have short guts with highly elaborate mucosal folding in the upper intestines; herbivores have long guts which appear structurally uniform from stomach to rectum. 2. Brush border membranes of many fish intestines display at least two transport processes for each organic solute, one an Na+-dependent, saturable carrier mechanism, and the other a non-saturable influx pathway which may be simple diffusion. 3. Intestinal epithelial cells from freshwater fish can accumulate nutrients to concentrations in excess of those in the gut lumen; those of marine fish can not. 4. Net transepithelial nutrient transport in upper intestine is greater in freshwater fish than in marine forms as a result of considerable solute backflux from epithelium to lumen in the latter. 5. In many fish the lower intestine displays a significant net transmural flux of nutrients that may contribute to total organic solute absorption. 6. Intestines of freshwater fish have a serosa positive (relative to mucosa) electrical potential difference; marine fish display a negative serosa. 7. Addition of organic solutes to intestines of freshwater fish hyperpolarizes the electrically positive serosa; in marine forms a depolarization of the serosa negative potential occurs. In both cases this appears due to increased net transmural sodium transport coupled to net nutrient flow.