Now showing items 1-7 of 7

    • Article

      Anti-luminous Vibrio factors associated with the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      The ability of the “green water” grow-out culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to prevent outbreaks of Luminous Vibriosis was investigated by screening associated isolates of bacteria, fungi, phytoplankton and fish skin mucus for anti-luminous Vibrio metabolites. Among the 85 bacterial isolates tested, 63 (74%) caused +∼+++ inhibition of the Vibrio harveyi pathogen after 24–48 h co-cultivation. The variation in growth inhibition rates of +, ++, and +++ were demonstrated by 15 (18%), 13 (15%), and 28 (33%) isolates, respectively, 24 h after treatment. Eight bacterial isolates showed consistently sustained maximum inhibition of luminous Vibrio after 24 to 48 h exposure. The majority of these luminous Vibrio inhibiting bacterial isolates were obtained from tilapia mucus and gut. In tests with fungi, 4 of 20 (20%) yeast isolates showed intracellular metabolites inhibitory to luminous Vibrio. Among filamentous fungi, 5 of 45 (11%) isolates yielded intracellular metabolites while 3 of 41 (7%) isolates had extracellular metabolites inhibitory to luminous Vibrio. These fungal isolates were identified as Rhodotorula sp., Saccharomyces sp., Candida sp., Penicillium sp., mycelia sterilia, and two unidentified species. The microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans and Nitzchia sp., consistently demonstrated complete inhibition of luminous Vibrio from 24 h and 48 h post exposure, respectively, and during the 7-day experiment. Leptolyngbia sp. caused a 94–100% reduction of the luminous Vibrio population from 104 to 101 cfu/ml 24 h post exposure which was sustained throughout the 10-day observation period. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of Skeletonema costatum on luminous Vibrio was bacteriostatic throughout the 7-day exposure while Nannochlorum sp. did not significantly inhibit luminous Vibrio. The skin mucus of jewel tilapia, Tilapia hornorum, had no resident luminous bacteria and inhibited this bacterial pathogen in 6–48 h, which was proportionate to the 103 and 105 cfu/ml test concentrations of luminous Vibrio. This study provides a scientific explanation that the effectiveness of the “green water” culture of tiger shrimp (P. monodon) in preventing outbreaks of luminous Vibriosis among P. monodon juveniles in grow-out ponds can be attributed to the presence of anti-luminous Vibrio factors in the bacterial, fungal, phytoplankton microbiota and the skin mucus of tilapia associated with this novel technique of shrimp culture.
    • Article

      Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products 

      EC Amar, V Kiron, S Satoh & T Watanabe - Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2004 - Elsevier
      The effects of orally administered carotenoids from natural sources on the non-specific defense mechanisms of rainbow trout were evaluated in a nine-week feeding trial. Fish were fed four diets containing either β-carotene or astaxanthin at 100 and 200 mg kg−1 from the marine algae Dunaliella salina and red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, respectively, and a control diet containing no supplemented carotenoids. Specific growth rate and feed:gain ratio were not affected by dietary carotenoid supplementation. Among the humoral factors, serum alternative complement activity increased significantly in all carotenoid supplemented groups when compared to the control. On the other hand, serum lysozyme activity increased in the Dunaliella> group but not in the Phaffia group, whereas plasma total immunoglobulin levels were not altered by the feeding treatments. As for the cellular responses, the superoxide anion production from the head kidney remained unchanged while the phagocytic rate and index in all supplemented groups were significantly higher than those of the control. These findings demonstrate that dietary carotenoids from both D. salina and P. rhodozyma can modulate some of the innate defense mechanisms in rainbow trout.
    • Article

      Evaluation of plant proteins as partial replacement for animal proteins in diets for Penaeus indicus and P. merguiensis juveniles 

      VD Peñaflorida - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2002 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The growth rate and survival of two white shrimps, Penaeus indicus and P. merguiensis, fed diets in which fishmeal was partially replaced with plant protein sources were investigated in three trials. In trial 1 with P. indicus, soybean, yeast and leaf meals of kangkong, papaya and Cassia tora L. were screened as partial substitutes for fishmeal. The total biomass of shrimp fed 20% yeast (20yeast) was highest but not significantly different than that of shrimp fed 10yeast and 10papaya. Survival was highest with 20yeast, 10papaya and 10yeast. Shrimp fed Cassia tora L. had the highest weight gain and SGR but their survival was similar to those fed poor performing diets. In trial 2 with P. merguiensis, the ingredients were modified by decreasing fishmeal and increasing the yeast and soybean substitution. The biomass of the shrimp fed 10 yeast was similar to that of the shrimp fed 20yeast and 26 soybean, the weight gain and SGR were similar to shrimp fed 20yeast while survival was highest but not different from 20yeast and 26 soybean. In trial 3 with P. indicus, weight gain and SGR were best with 20yeast and 34soybean. However, biomass and survival did not differ among replacement levels.

      The performance of the white shrimp varied with different levels of yeast and soybean meal incorporation. The response of P. indicus was best with 20yeast (15% by weight) or 34soybean meal (34% by weight) while that of P. merguiensis was with 10yeast (7% by weight), 20yeast (15% by weight) or 26soybean meal (26% by weight). Partial replacement of fishmeal with yeast or soybean meal would result in lower feed costs but the use of these feeds needs further refinement since survival was low in all treatments. Rearing techniques, such as increasing the feeding frequency, simulating deep pond conditions or using adequate substrates, should be refined.
    • Article

      Molecular cloning and localization of GABAA receptor-associated protein in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis 

      HS Marcial, K Suga, S Kinoshita, G Kaneko, A Hagiwara & S Watabe - International Review of Hydrobiology, 2014 - Wiley-VCH Verlag
      γ-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A-associated protein (GABARAP) and its homologs constitute a protein family found in many eukaryotes from yeast to human, and are known to be involved in intracellular membrane trafficking of GABAA receptors and autophagy. In this study, we cloned cDNA-encoding GABARAP from the monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and examined for its tissue distribution at the protein level in neonates, males and females. Using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques, we showed that like other GABARAPs, rotifer GABARAP was also composed of 117 amino acids and highly homologous to vertebrate GABARAP2 ortholog (74–76% identity). GABARAP was demonstrated with its specific antibody to be ubiquitously distributed, irrespective of neonates, males, and females, in the coronal area that covers brain and contains most mechano- and chemoreceptors. Rotifer GABARAP was also expressed in the mature eggs but not in immature eggs. Double immunostaining with mammalian anti-GABA γ receptor antibody showed that rotifer GABARAP co-localized with GABA receptor, suggesting the association of the two proteins. The presence of GABARAP in rotifer implies that it is highly conserved during evolution, and plays important roles in various biological processes.
    • Article

      Mycoflora of the 'green water' culture system of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius 

      EM Leaño, GD Lio-Po, LA Nadong, AC Tirado, RB Sadaba & NG Guanzon - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing Ltd
      This study was conducted to quantify and characterize the mycoflora associated with the ‘green water’ culture system of Penaeus monodon. Samples of water, tilapia gut and mucus, and shrimp hepatopancreas from three shrimp farms were collected during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of culture (DOC). Results showed that high fungal loads were observed in tilapia gut (total: 117–1352 colony forming unit (CFU) 5 cm hind gut−1; yeasts: 0–136 CFU 5 cm hind gut−1) and mucus (total: 12–311 CFU (5 cm2)−1; yeasts: 0–88 CFU (5 cm2)−1), while minimal fungal populations were observed in water samples (total: 0–110CFU mL−1; yeasts: 0–5 CFU ml−1). Shrimp hepatopancreas harboured a very low number of filamentous fungi (0–27 CFU 0.1 g−1) and yeasts (0–7CFU 0.1 g−1) especially at 60 DOC. The filamentous fungal isolates were dominated by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, while the yeast populations were dominated by Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces species. The dominance of these fungi on tilapia mucus and gut and their presence in the rearing water might play an important role in the overall mechanisms involved in the control of luminous Vibrio in the ‘green water’ grow-out culture of P. monodon.
    • Article

      Survival rate of Penaeus monodon Fabricius larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and bread yeast 

      CT Villegas & T Loon Ti - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1978 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      An evaluation was made of the effects of Chaetoceros species, bread yeast and their combination on the survival of Penaeus monodon larvae. In general it was found that feeding with a combination of the 2 resulted in higher larval survival rates.
    • Conference paper

      Yeasts as food organisms in aquaculture 

      CT Villegas - In Report of the Training Course on Growing Food Organisms for Fish Hatcheries: Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 3-22 August 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      The use of yeast as feed in aquaculture is discussed. It has been successfully used as feed for Penaeus japonicus larvae, for Brachionus plicatilis mass culture, and for the improvement of nutritional quality of Tigriopus japonicus. It has been found most effective as supplemental food when enough phytoplankton cannot be supplied.