Browsing by Subject "Yolk"
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Early larval development of the seabass Lates calcarifer with emphasis on the transition of energy sources -
Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 1986 - Japanese Society of Fisheries ScienceThe early growth, yolk and oil globule resorption, early morphological and behavioral de-velopment, and initial feeding of hatchery-raised Lates calcarifer were studied. Based on the developmental events and the energy the reby utilized, the early life history of this species can be broken down into the following five phases: 1) rapid early growth due to rapid yolk resorption (from hatching to about 15 hr after hatching (TAH); 2) morphological differentiation and slowgrowth based on energy from yolk (to about 50 h TAH when the yolk is exhausted); 3) slow growth with initiation of feeding and swimming activities, based on energy from oil globule and from exogenous food (to about 110 h TAH); 4) accelerated growth and effective feeding and swimming based on the same two sources of energy as in the preceding stage (up to about 120-140 h TAH when the oil globule is exhausted); and 5) accelerated growth, effective feeding and swimming and further development based solely on exogenous energy (beyond 140 h TAIT).
Larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Terapontidae), reared in mesocosms -
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 2017 - Szczecińskie Towarzystwo NaukoweThe silver therapon, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), is an endemic and economically important freshwater food fish in the Philippines. The natural populations of this species have been declining during the past years, mainly due to intense fishing pressure, habitat degradation, and introduction of invasive alien species. At present, it is considered a target species for domestication and conservation efforts. Despite several attempts of artificial reproduction and larval rearing, little is known on larval and early juvenile development of silver therapon. The presently reported study was therefore intended to fill this gap in the knowledge by determining the growth and describing body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation of this fish. Newly hatched larvae were reared in mesocosm tanks at a mean temperature of 29.5°C. Larvae up to 30 days after hatching were sampled at irregular intervals and preserved in 5% buffered formalin. Early development stages for 245 preserved specimens were described in detail with reference to changes in morphology, growth and body proportions, pigmentation, and fin formation. Five developmental stages of silver therapon were identified: yolk sac larva (1.88 mm TL), preflexion (2.51 mm TL), notochord flexion (4.50-8.27 mm TL), postflexion larva (6.90-12.21 mm TL), and early juvenile (>13.40 mm TL). Growth was isometric for eye diameter and gape size whereas positive allometry was observed for body depth, head length, and preanal length. Some body proportions showed abrupt changes from preflexion to postflexion larvae before it stabilized during the early juvenile stage. Pigmentation in the form of stellate and punctate melanophores increased with developmental stage, with larvae becoming heavily pigmented from postflexion to early juvenile stage. These morphological changes, together with the full complement of fin rays and squamation observed in specimens larger than 13.4 mm TL, suggest the attainment of the juvenile stage of this species. These morphological changes may explain the food and feeding habits during the early life stages of silver therapon which is critical to their survival and recruitment in the wild and in a mesocosm hatchery environment.
Survival of larval milkfish, Chanos chanos, during changeover from endogenous to exogenous energy sources - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, 17-22 April 1989, Tokyo, Japan, 1990 - Asian Fisheries SocietySurvival of laboratory-reared larvae of milkfish, Chanos chanos , during transition from the prelarval to postlarval stages was examined in relation to the changeover of energy sources. The prelarval and early postlarval stages of the fish can be divided into 5 phases; 1) rapid growth corresponding to rapid yolk less rapid yolk resorption; 3) stagnant growth with rapid yolk resorption, yolk being still the only nutrient for the larvae; 4) stagnant growth based on both yolk and exogenous food, from the onset of feeding to the complete exhaustion of yolk; and 5) rapid growth based solely on exogenous food. The survival rate decreased when the larvae depended solely on yolk, then leveled off when they had both endogenous and exogenous energy sources, and again declined when they came to depend totally on exogenous food. Feeding during the period from the onset of feeding to complete yolk resorption seems important for the successful survival of milk-fish larvae thereafter.