Now showing items 1-16 of 16

    • Article

      Amino acid profiles in the midgut, ovary, developing eggs and zoea of the mud crab, Scylla serrata 

      VD Peñaflorida - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2004 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Culture of the mud crab, Scylla serrata, is beset by low and inconsistent survival of larvae in spite of the high fecundity of crab breeders. The nutrition of the embryo and pre-feeding zoea depends on what is stored in the egg. The protein and free amino acid contents of the midgut gland, ovary, eggs, pre-feeding zoea, live food and a maintenance diet for broodstock were analyzed by HPLC. The maintenance diet had lower arginine, histidine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan than the ovary and egg. The midgut had higher phenylalanine and valine and lower leucine, methionine and tryptophan than the ovary. Amino acid profiles in the ovary, egg and zoea showed that methionine was highest in the ovary and leucine was highest in the zoea. Low val- ues were observed for isoleucine and valine in ovary, arginine in egg, methionine and pheny- lalanine in zoea. When live foods were compared to zoea, histidine in Brachionus, leucine and tryptophan in Artemia, and arginine, leucine and valine in Acartia were low. Essential free amino acids in fertilized eggs were 2.5 times higher than in unfertilized eggs. Arginine, histidine, lysine, methionine, tyrosine and threonine decreased with egg embryogenesis, suggesting that these are the major free amino acids utilized as the egg develops. Information on egg and zoea amino acids can be used to predict viable crab eggs while information on amino acid profiles in the ovary, egg and zoea can be used to develop broodstock diets. Identification of limiting amino acids in live foods can be used to develop larvae diets.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mangrove crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & JJ dela Cruz-Huervana - 2018 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual includes the biology of crab (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea), and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs and rearing the zoea to ‘fly’ size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as the farming of this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - 2008 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual includes the biology of mud crab, and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea) and rearing the zoea to fly size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
    • Book

      Biology and hatchery of mud crabs Scylla spp. 

      ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34
      This manual describes the principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea) and rearing the zoeae to juveniles. Hatchery conditions should satisfy the ecological requirements of each specific stage, thus the manual starts with a section on biology of mud crabs.
    • Article

      Laboratory breeding of the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskal) through the zoea and megalopa stages to the crab stage 

      H Motoh, D de la Peña & E Tampos - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A series of experiments is being conducted to establish breeding techniques to mass-produce seedlings of S. serrata for pond cultivation to meet the commercial demand for the crab. The objective is to culture the crab through the 5 zoea stages and 1 megalopa stage to the crab stage. A brief resume of the experiments is presented. Heavy mortality occurred at the 1st, 2nd and 5th zoea stages, and during the megalopa stage. Initial mortality is attributed to unfavourable rearing conditions, and later mortality to cannibalism.
    • Conference paper

      Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage 

      GS Pates Jr., ET Quinitio, GF Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The effects of antibiotics on the survival, growth and external deformities of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 mgL-1 oxytetracycline (OTC) and 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mgL-1 furazolidone (furan) until the late megalopa in the first and second experiments. The treatments that gave the best results in the first and second experiments were conducted simultaneously in the third experiment. The surviving crab instar from each replicate were grown in nursery tanks for one month.

      Significantly higher survival and faster growth rate of Z5 were attained when 3 and 6 mgL-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1 mgL-1 furan were used. Morphological deformities observed in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. Percentage occurrence of morphological deformities was similar in all treatments. Significantly (P<0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained among Z5 in the treatments using 3 mgL-1 OTC and 0.5 mL-1 furan in the third experiment. Morphological deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage of deformities was observed in juveniles that were previously exposed to 6 mgL-1 OTC or 1.0 mgL-1 furan. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in both treatments of OTC and furan. However, growth was significantly (P<0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics.

      The study shows the apparent negative effects of antibiotics and highlights the need to eliminate or find alternatives, thereby preventing possible harm to the organisms and the environment.
    • Article

      Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage 

      GS Pates Jr., ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2017 - Wiley
      The effects of antibiotics on the external deformities, growth and survival of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to oxytetracycline (OTC) (0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12 mg L-1) and furazolidone (FZD) (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg L-1) in the first and second experiments, respectively, until the late megalopa. The crab instars were grown in nursery tanks for 1 month. Larvae survived until megalopa only at 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD. These four concentrations were run simultaneously in another experiment. Morphological deformities in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) on the deformities of zoea 5 in 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 OTC and 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained in 3.0 mg L-1 OTC and 0.5 mg L-1 FZD. Deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage occurrence of deformities was observed in the 6.0 mg L-1 OTC and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD in the first and third experiments, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in OTC and FZD treatments. However, growth was significantly (P < 0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics. The study shows the effects of OTC and FZD in the morphology of mud crab. Therefore, there is a need to eliminate the use of antibiotics and find alternatives.
    • Conference paper

      Mud crab production trials at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University, New Washington, Aklan 

      YH Primavera-Tirol, R de la Cruz & EB Pastrana - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Two hatchery and nursery trials have been conducted at the College of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Aklan State University (ASU) for the Multi-species Hatchery and Fishfarm Project from August to September 2014 and April to May 2015, in collaboration with the Aquaculture Department (AQD), Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) under the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program of the PCAARRD-DOST.

      Two ASU staff underwent training on Mud Crab Hatchery, Nursery and Grow-out Operations at SEAFDEC/AQD from September to October 2013. This was followed by SEAFDEC/AQD&rsquo;s provision of technical assistance during the actual hatchery and nursery operations using Scylla serrata at ASU. Survival rates of 3% and of 66-76% were recorded in the hatchery and nursery phases, respectively. The natural food consisting of rotifer and Artemia, and commercial formulated diet were fed to S. serrata larvae (zoea to megalopa). Juvenile crabs were fed formulated feeds and molluscs. Water temperature ranged from 27 to 30°C and salinity from 29 to 33 ppt in the hatchery. Initial results and insights are discussed and evaluated as guide for future hatchery and nursery protocols.
    • Conference paper

      Mud crab Scylla serrata hatchery operation 

      M Santos & F Santos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The initial exposure of the Santos family in aquaculture was the culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) and mud crab (Scylla serrata) in brackishwater pond in Quezon. The milkfish fry were obtained from our own milkfish hatchery, in which several broodstock are maintained as source of eggs. The juvenile crabs for stocking were wild-caught obtained from Quezon, Camarines or Bicol Region traders. In the late 2012, SEAFDEC/AQD collaborated with the Mari-al Hatchery for the seed production of mud crab under the National Mud Crab S and T Program of the Department of Science and Technology. This collaboration was timely since the source of juvenile crabs was no longer reliable. Furthermore, excess crabs that would be produced from the hatchery can also be sold to other farmers. Training at SEAFDEC/AQD and technical assistance on site were provided by SEAFDEC/AQD prior to the operation of the mud crab hatchery. Part of the existing milkfish hatchery facilities were utilized for the crab larval rearing. The protocol of SEAFDEC/AQD was followed with some modifications based on the existing facilities and source of water supply. After the successful runs, a separate hatchery facility dedicated for mud crab larval rearing was constructed in 2013. Four runs were conducted with 1-2% survival rate from zoea 1 to crab instar. Problems encountered during the runs include: insufficient rotifers since the culture had to be shared with milkfish larvae, poor water quality due to typhoon and presence of a wharf nearby, low water temperature, human error, resignation of trained staff, lack of good quality broodstock source nearby, and MDS. The problems were addressed one by one. Although the technology has been developed, this has to be modified accordingly.
    • Article

      Quality assessment of newly hatched mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae 

      ET Quinitio, JJ dela Cruz-Huervana & FD Parado-Estepa - Aquaculture Research, 2018 - Wiley
      Starvation and exposure to formalin were investigated as possible stress tests for evaluating the quality of mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae. For the starvation stress test, newly hatched zoeae stocked in 150-ml containers were either starved or fed rotifers. Similarly, newly hatched zoeae were stocked in containers with seawater of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 mg/L formalin for the formalin stress test. The zoeae from the same batches were used for seed production to monitor their performance and validate the results of stress tests. Starvation was found to be unsuitable for larval quality evaluation. However, the impact of initial food deprivation on the newly hatched larvae indicates that feeding immediately after hatching is necessary for mud crab larvae. Exposure of larvae to 40 mg/L formalin for 3 hr appeared to be a reliable and practical method for larval quality assessment as the survival of larvae in the mass production tanks validated the classification of good and poor quality batches in the stress tests. On this basis, a hatchery operator can decide which batch should be cultured further. Finally, there appears to be a link between the quality of larvae and the performance at the megalopa and early juvenile crabs.
    • Article

      Reproductive performance, lipids and fatty acids of mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) fed dietary lipid levels 

      VR Alava, ET Quinitio, JB de Pedro, ZGA Orosco & M Wille - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Natural food (NF, control), artificial diets (AD) containing total lipid levels of 10%, 12% and 14% (AD10, AD12 and AD14) and their combinations (AD10+NF, AD12+NF and AD14+NF) were fed for 112 days to pond-sourced eyestalk-ablated mud crab Scylla serrata (625±6.4 g) in tanks in order to determine their effects on reproduction and lipid profiles in broodstock tissues and zoeae. Crabs fed NF had the highest number of spawning followed by crabs fed AD10+NF and AD14+NF. Higher offspring production (number of zoeae) was obtained from crabs fed NF and AD+NF than from AD. As dietary total lipid levels increased, total lipid of broodstock ovaries, hepatopancreas, muscle and zoeae correspondingly increased in which AD+NF promoted higher levels than AD. Increased dietary total lipid levels enhanced lipid classes such as triacylglycerols and phosphatidyl choline levels in zoeae, all higher in crabs fed AD+NF than in AD. The major fatty acids in zoeae, particularly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9 and 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, were higher in crabs fed AD+NF than in AD, the contents corresponding to broodstock dietary total lipid levels. A 10% total lipid in AD in combination with NF was sufficient to provide the essential lipids in crabs in the improvement of larval production and quality.
    • Article

      Seed production of Charybdis feriatus (Linnaeus) 

      FD Parado-Estepa, ET Quinitio & E Rodriguez - Aquaculture Research, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Charybdis feriatus (Linnaeus) were investigated to identify suitable techniques for broodstock management and seed production. Likewise, factors such as ablation, water depth and light requirements affecting survival or reproductive performance were tested. Production of megalops in tanks and juveniles in net cages installed in earthen ponds was conducted. Wild-caught berried females produced a significantly higher number of zoeae per gram body weight (BW) of the female (3300±600) than captive spawners (867±58). Ablated and unablated crabs spawned after a month and ovaries of both had oocytes in all developmental stages after spawning, indicating that ablation was not necessary. Broodstock survived higher when stocked in 1 m-deep water and kept in dark conditions compared with shallow (0.5 m depth) water or ambient lighting. There were six zoea and one megalopa stage. Megalops were produced (survival of 2–22% in 1 tonne or 23–55% in 3 L tanks) when methods for the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forsskål) were used, but feeding with Artemia started only at the Z4 stage. Survival of megalops after 1 month was higher when stocked in net cages installed in an earthen pond (32–82%) than when reared continuously in land-based tanks (5–11%).
    • Article

      Seed production of mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles 

      ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa, OM Millamena, E Rodriguez & E Borlongan - Asian Fisheries Science, 2001 - Asian Fisheries Society
      A protocol for the large-scale rearing of the mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles was developed based on the results of small-scale experiments on feeding and water management. This paper also reports the success in producing the second generation (F2) crabs.

      Pond-reared adult S. serrata held in 10 m3 concrete tanks with sand substrates were given fish, mussel, annelids and formulated diet. The zoeae produced were stocked in 1.5 or 10 m3 tanks at 30 to 50 ind-l-1 and fed 10 to 15 Brachionus rotundiformis ml-1, 1 to 5 Artemia sauna nauplii ml-1 and 1.5 to 2.0 g shrimp larval commercial diet-m-3 day. Water was replaced daily at 30 to 50% of the total volume starting day 3. Megalops were nursed until crab stage either in tanks or in net cages installed in ponds. Crabs were fed mussel or small shrimps (Acetes sp).

      Hatching occurred 6 to 12 days after spawning at 26.5 to 30.5°C. A female produced 0.42 to 5.23 x 106 zoeae at a time. Mean survival rate from zoea 1 to 3- to 5-day old megalopa was 2.6 ± 0.8% and 32.8 ± 4.8% from megalopa to crab stage. The development from zoea 1 to megalopa required 16 to 18 days. Cannibalism and luminescent bacteria were identified as the major causes of mortality. Highest mortality was observed during the metamorphosis from zoea 5 to megalopa and megalopa to crab 1. First crab stage was obtained 23 to 25 days after hatching. Sorting the crabs during the nursery period minimized cannibalism.

      Completion of the cycle in captivity was attained in 1997 and 1999 when spawns from pond-reared crabs grew to become the second-generation broodstock. The results point to a minimum age of 7.5 to 9 months at which S. serrata hatched their eggs after rearing from zoea 1.
    • Article

      Simulated transport of Scylla serrata zoeae at various loading densities 

      ET Quinitio & FD Parado-Estepa - Asian Fisheries Science, 2001 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Percent mortality of mud crab Scylla serrata zoeae was determined after 6 h of simulated transport at mobile and stationary conditions at loading densities of 10, 20, 30 and 40 x 103 ind-l-1. Mortality was not significantly different among treatments immediately after transport. Surviving zoeae were stocked in basins, fed with Brachionus rotundiformis and mortality was compared 15 h after transport. There was no significant interaction between loading density and condition (mobile and stationary) of transport (P > 0.05). However, larval mortality varied significantly among densities (P < 0.001) regardless of the condition. A density of 10 x 103 ind-l-1 had the lowest mortality (0.56 ± 0.76%) followed by 20 x 103 (1.28 ± 0.39%), 30 x 103 (4.3 ± 0.25%), and 40 x 103 (4.3 ± 0.31%) ind-l-1. In another experiment, the effect of transport duration was determined at a constant loading density of 10 x 103 ind-l-1 in control (not subjected to packing and transport), shaken and unshaken conditions. Zoea mortality did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) after the 6, 9, and 12 h transport. Regardless of the duration, mortality was lowest in the control (0.41 ± 0.05%) compared to those in the shaken (0.99 ± 0.13%) and unshaken (0.79 ± 0.12%) conditions. Likewise, the condition but not the duration of transport affected larval survival at 15 h post-transport. Mortality was lower in the shaken (1.92 ± 0.22%) than in the unshaken condition (2.46 ± 0.17%). Since mortality is low even at 20 x 103 ind-l-1, this can still be used to transport S. serrata zoeae for 6 h. However, loading density should be reduced to 10 x 103 ind-l-1 for transport duration up to 12 h.
    • Conference paper

      Strategies to reduce disease incidence in mud crab culture 

      EC Amar, MD Somera, SB Madero, EA Tendencia & JP Faisan Jr. - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Mud crab hatchery suffers from low survival due to susceptibility to bacterial infection in the early larval stages among many causes. Despite food safety issues, antibiotics continue to be used in the absence of effective alternatives. In this study, screening of plant extracts was conducted to determine their suitability as antimicrobial agents against pathogens causing low survival in the hatchery. In addition, potential probionts were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of mud crab, and water and sediments of mud crab grow-out ponds.

      Crude ethanolic extracts from various terrestrial and mangrove trees were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity and toxicity to mud crab zoea and megalopa. In addition, the in vivo antimicrobial efficacies of the selected extracts were tested by oral administration followed by experimental challenge with Vibrio harveryi. On the other hand, the putative probionts, were tested for pathogenicity against mud crab zoea and megalopa and quorum sensing inhibition activity against V. harveyi. Finally the extracts and probionts were tested for their efficacy in simulated hatchery and grow-out trials.

      Results showed that extracts of Terminalia cattapa and the potential probiont Bacillus subtilis G100R11 showed antimicrobial and probiotic activity in in vitro and in vivo tests. In simulated hatchery trials, T. cattapa administration successfully produced crab instar with a survival of 1.3-1.8% in trials 1 and 2 comparable to antibiotic control. B. subtilis produced crab instar with survival of 0.8-1.0% in trials 1 and 2, better than the commercial probiotic with 0-0.13% survival. Using T. cattapa and B. subtilis, survival was above 30% until zoea 5 but suddenly dropped below 5% during metamorphosis to megalopa where high incidence of incomplete molting was observed. If difficulty affecting the molting process is addressed, high survival from zoea to megalopa and crab instar will be achievable.
    • Conference paper

      Updates on the larviculture of mud crab at SEAFDEC/AQD 

      ET Quinitio, JJDC Huervana, JC Virgula & FD Parado-Estepa - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Although the mud crab (Scylla serrata) hatchery technology has been developed, issues such as high cost of production due to the need for additional facilities and labor for natural food culture, inconsistent survival rate at megalopa stage due to Molt Death Syndrome (MDS), and disease due to luminescent bacteria (Vibrio spp.), remain to be addressed. Refinements on the existing mud crab larviculture technology were done to address these problems.

      Poor nutrition, low water temperature and application of prophylaxis during the zoea l stage have been identified as possible causes of MDS. Six shrimp formulated diets (FD) were tested, and 3 of these proved to be suitable for mud crab larvicuture. Larval performance was compared using the 3 diets + natural food (NF, rotifers and Artemia) and NF alone as control. No significant difference was noted in the survival among the 4 treatments, although BP Nippai fed larvae had higher values. Lesser occurrence of MDS was observed in all the larvae fed FD+NF. Three mud crab larval diets with various attractants (squid, annelids, and squid + annelids) were also formulated and fed to the larvae. Results showed no significant difference among the 3 diets. The results of another experiment investigating the effects of the reduction of natural food showed that larvae fed 50% NF + 50% FD and 75%NF + 25% FD had higher survival compared to those fed 75% AD +25% NF and no NF at all. The results indicate that the larvae cannot survive with formulated diet alone. It has been observed that frequency of antibiotic application can be reduced to every 5 days if good quality mud crab larvae are used. Formalin stress test proved to be a reliable method to determine the quality of a batch of newly hatched zoeae. All prophylactic treatments are stopped when megalopae reach the benthic stage.

      To accelerate the dissemination of science-based mud crab hatchery technology to industry stakeholders, SEAFDEC/AQD entered into an agreement with private hatchery operators, State Universities and Colleges, and Local Government Units on giving assistance during initial hatchery operations. Technicians were given free training, followed by in-situ hatchery operations with assistance from SEAFDEC/AQD with the funding from PCAARRD-DOST. Crablets are now being produced by the collaborators. Increase in the production of hatchery-reared crablets will eventually reduce the dependence on wild-sourced mud crab seed stock for farming.