Now showing items 1-20 of 25

    • Conference paper

      Autoecology of an endemic calanoid copepod: The first step in biodiversity conservation in Lakes 

      NE Palomar & AC Mamaril - In Conservation and Ecological Management of Philippine Lakes in Relation to Fisheries and Aquaculture: Proceedings … Seminar-Workshop held on October 21-23, 1997, INNOTECH, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD), Department of Science and Technology; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
      Copepods, specifically calanoid copepods, play an important role in the productivity of aquatic ecosystems since they serve as a crucial link between primary producers and carnivores. In tropical reservoirs and lakes, they are not only a major source of food for many invertebrates and zooplanktivorous fish, but also good biological indicators. Calanoid/cyclopoid-cladoceran ratio is used in limnological studies as an indicator of water quality. In the past, studies in the Philippines on copepods and other freshwater zooplankton have dealt only on their taxonomy and distribution. Filipinodiaptomus insulanus is a calanoid copepod recognized as endemic to the country with its distribution restricted to the areas of Bulacan, Laguna and other parts of Rizal. Furthermore it is the only calanoid copepod found in the La Mesa Reservoir in Novaliches, Quezon City. This paper is a synthesis of three studies of F. insulanus obtained from La Mesa Reservoir. It aims to provide additional baseline information about the organism, particularly on its postembryonic development, feeding habits, and density fluctuations of its life history stage in the reservoir.
    • Article

      Biological evaluation of frozen zooplankton as food for milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry 

      CT Villegas & GL Lumasag - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1991 - Verlag Paul Parey
      Milkfish fry with an average standard length and weight of 13.88 mm and 3.95 mg, respectively, were reared for 30 days using live and frozen Moina macrocopa and Brachionus plicatilis at feeding densities of 10–20 individuals per ml. Growth, survival and yield were used as indicators of the overall performances of the various treatment groups. Fry fed live M. macrocopa showed gains (both length and weight), growth and survival rates and yields significantly higher than fry fed with other treatment groups (P < 0.05). However, significant reductions in growth and survival rates resulted when fry were fed frozen M. macrocopa. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in growth and survival rates (P < 0.05) in fry fed live or frozen B. plicatilis.

      The results of the current study showed that although milkfish fry could be grown successfully using B. plicatilis, feeding with live Moina significantly improved growth, survival rate and yield (P < 0.05). Frozen Moina was found to be unsuitable as a feed for rearing milkfish fry because it reduced growth rates and increased mortality. Comparisons between live and frozen rotifers have proven the suitability of frozen rotifers as feed for rearing milkfish fry. By freezing surplus rotifers this would permit short term storage in anticipation of high hatchery demand and overcome any unpredictable failures with live cultures.
    • Article

      Colonization of coral rubble by motile cryptic animals: Differences between contiguous versus raised substrates from the bottom 

      Y Takada, O Abe, K Hashimoto & T Shibuno - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2016 - Elsevier
      Recent studies have demonstrated that interstices of coral rubble harbor rich and diverse assemblages of motile cryptic animals. Habitats of coral rubble are prone to frequent physical disturbances, so colonization is an important process to maintain the assemblages of these cryptic animals. In order to examine the pattern of colonization, field experiments were carried out using mesh traps with defaunated coral rubble: one treatment placed on the bottom and the other raised 15 cm above the bottom (throughout as "raised") to restrict colonizers to only organisms that are able to invade via the water column. Results of nMDS and PERMANOVA showed significant differences between the assemblages of the bottom and raised treatments. Species-specific variations in the rate of colonization, which were estimated by fitting the von Bertalanffy equation, contributed to the variations in the cryptic assemblages. Generally, decapods and gastropods colonized via the benthic pathway with colonizing individuals moving on the surface of the bottom substrate, while copepods and non-shelled gammarids colonized via the planktonic pathway. Variations in cryptic assemblages in coral rubble microhabitats may be partly due to differences in contributions via the two colonization pathways.
    • Article

      Culturing seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in illuminated cages with supplementary Acetes feeding 

      LMB Garcia, GV Hilomen-Garcia & RLM Calibara - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2010 - The Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      Juvenile Hippocampus barbouri were grown in illuminated cages with or without supplemental daytime feeding of thawed Acetes (a planktonic marine crustacean), or in non-illuminated cages with Acetes feeding, as a supplement to light-attracted zooplankton prey. After ten weeks, seahorses in illuminated cages fed Acetes had the highest mean body weight (2.24 g) and length (8.20 cm), but these did not significantly differ from seahorses in unfed illuminated cages (1.88 g; 7.25 cm), which did not significantly differ from those in fed non-illuminated cages (0.88 g; 6.32 cm). In all treatments, the mean instantaneous growth rate in body weight declined progressively throughout the test but the instantaneous growth rate in stretched length did not vary. Mean survival (76-100%) of seahorses in fed non-illuminated cages and in unfed illuminated cages did not vary significantly over the test period. The mean survival of seahorses in fed illuminated cages was lowest (54%), but did not significantly differ from the other treatments. Juvenile H. barbouri grown in illuminated cages had better growth than those in non-illuminated cages, but survival was reduced when seahorses in illuminated cages were fed Acetes.
    • Article

      Diet composition, feed preferences and mouth morphology of early stage silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks 

      FA Aya, MNC Corpuz & LMB Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2015 - Wiley
      This study examined the diet composition, feeding preferences, and mouth morphology of the silver therapon (Leiopotherapon plumbeus, Kner 1864) larvae under captive conditions. Larvae were reared in outdoor tanks (4 m3) with natural food grown 2 weeks prior to start of larval rearing. Food preference was measured by the Chesson's electivity index (αi). Gut content analysis of larvae sampled between 5 and 25 days after hatching (DAH) showed the dominance in the diet by zooplankton, mainly copepod nauplii, cladocerans and insect larvae. Small fish larvae (5–9 DAH; 3.32–6.29 mm standard length) preferred cladocerans, ciliates and copepod nauplii; whereas older larvae (12–25 DAH; 5.45–19.26 mm standard length) preferred insect larvae over cladocerans and adult insects. The mouth gape size at 5 DAH was 359 μm and increased to 3.75 mm at 40 DAH when body size grew at an average rate of 0.59 mm d−1. The standard length (SL) of L. plumbeus larvae was strongly associated with mouth size (r2 = 0.98, P < 0.05), indicating a progressive increase of ingested prey size of the fish larvae. These results clarified the early life feeding ecology of this species, which is essential in developing effective hatchery techniques.
    • Article

      Effects of different illumination levels on zooplankton abundance, feeding periodicity, growth and survival of the Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), fry in illuminated floating nursery cages 

      AC Fermin & GA Seronay - Aquaculture, 1997 - Elsevier
      The effects of different illumination levels on Zooplankton abundance and feeding periodicity, growth and survival of hatchery-produced Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer, fry in illuminated floating net cages were determined in a 35-day experiment. Zooplankton abundance (consisting mainly of copepods at 64–78% of total abundance in all cages) was highest in cages illuminated at 180 lx (mean: 124 individuals l−1) and at 300 lx (mean: 405 individuals l−1) and peaked at 0400. High prey densities subsequently resulted in increased fish feeding as evidenced by the greatest number of prey (mean: 416–462 individuals fish−1) found in their guts between 0400 and 0800. Feeding incidence (range: 84–89%) was generally higher among fish held in illuminated cages than those reared in dark cages (67%). Low feeding of fish held in dark cages eventually led to starvation and mass mortality. The present results indicate that a light intensity of at least 300 lx attracts the highest number of zooplankton and promotes the best weight specific growth rate (10% day−1) and survival (40%) in sea bass juveniles reared in illuminated nursery cages.
    • Article

      Feeding ecology of silverperch, Terapon plumbeus Kner, and the impact fish-pens in Laguna de Bay, Philippines 

      M Kock, U Focken, H Richter, K Becker & CB Santiago - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2000 - Blackwell Publishing
      Aquaculture is an important factor in the fishery of Laguna de Bay in the Philippines; fish-pens and net-cages covered ≈10% of the lake surface in the late 1990s. The present study was carried out to assess the possible influences of aquaculture on a wild fish species, silverperch, Terapon plumbeus Kner, with a special emphasis on the feeding ecology of this fish. For the purposes of the investigation, 24-h samples were taken at 2-month intervals close to a fish-pen as well as in open water over a one-year period to acquire more information on this species. Significant differences in standard length and total weight were found between stations and sampling months. In open water, a mean standard length of 53.6 mm and a mean total weight of 4.2 g were found, whereas close to the fish-pen, the corresponding values were 57.6 mm and 5.4 g, respectively. The maximum mean standard length was attained around December 1996 and February 1997 (59.5 mm in open water; 66.1 mm close to the fish-pen), and the minimum was found in June 1996 (49.1 mm in open water; 46.2 mm close to the fish-pen). Noticeable differences were found in the food spectrum between the two sampling stations. Zooplankton, the major food source at both stations, was more important in the stomach content of fish in open water. The same was true for insects (i.e. chironomid larvae), although these did not make up such a large fraction of the diet. On the other hand, close to the fish-pen, aufwuchs-algae, phytoplankton and fish were more important. Generally, benthic organisms were consumed more frequently close to the fish-pen. Zooplankton was more important in the diet of smaller fish. In all size groups, the importance of zooplankton decreased during the rainy season.
    • Article

      Food choice by free-living stages of the tropical freshwater crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Parastacidae: Decapoda) 

      GN Loya-Javellana, DR Fielder & MJ Thorne - Aquaculture, 1993 - Elsevier
      Food choice by Cherax quadricarinatus was measured from video recordings of the time spent feeding on decayed plant material and zooplankton. Crayfish within the size range 20–75 mm spent a significantly longer time feeding on plant material, whilst crayfish at independent stage 1 (with yolk) did not spend a significantly different time at either of the two food types. Plant material, but not zooplankton, was often picked up to be consumed near or within shelters, which is consistent with ease of handling of plant material and with shelter dependence shown by redclaw crayfish.
    • Article

      Grow-out of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker; Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in illuminated sea cages 

      LMB Garcia & GV Hilomen-Garcia - Aquaculture Research, 2009 - Blackwell Publishing
      This paper examines the feasibility of rearing 10–15-day- and 0.7–1.5-month-old seahorse Hippocampus kuda in illuminated sea cages to continue existing hatchery protocols to mass produce H. kuda for trade and enhance depleted wild stocks in their natural habitats. Thawed Acetes (a planktonic crustacean abundant in inshore seas) was fed to juvenile seahorses in lighted and unlighted sea cages while one group in lighted cages was not fed Acetes. After 10–12 weeks of rearing, both mean body weight and stretch height increased in all treatment groups, with lighted cage-reared seahorses fed Acetes being heavier (2 g) and longer (8 cm) than the other two treatment groups. Although instantaneous growth rates declined during the rearing period, these were generally higher among Acetes-fed seahorses in lighted cages (0.02–0.07) compared with those in the unlighted cages with Acetes and lighted cages without Acetes feeding. Mean survivorship in all groups ranged from 9% to 74% after the trials, but mean survivorship of juveniles in lighted cages with Acetes feeding (9–74%) was consistently lower than the two treatment groups as a likely result of crustacean and piscine predators being attracted by light and the odour of leftover Acetes in the lighted cages. These results demonstrate that light-attracted zooplankton prey supplemented by Acetes feeding may provide essential nutrients for the growth of H. kuda juveniles in illuminated sea cages. With further improvement in the grow-out protocol, it may provide a possible alternative livelihood to seahorse fishers and sufficient seed to re-populate depleted wild stocks of H. kuda.
    • Article

      Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and fish density 

      FA Aya & LMB Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2016 - Wiley
      This study evaluated the effects of fertilizer type and fish density on early growth and survival of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks. In the first experiment, larvae (1.92 ± 0.09 mm total length) were stocked into nine, 4 m3 tanks at an initial density of 0.5 larvae L-1 and reared for 42 days at an ambient temperature of 28.8–30.7°C. Three treatments with three replicates each were compared: organic (chicken manure, OF) or inorganic fertilizers (ammonium phosphate, IF) applied once every 2 weeks, and the unfertilized (NF) tanks serving as the control group. Water quality, zooplankton densities, survival or growth of L. plumbeus larvae did not vary significantly in either fertilized or unfertilized tanks. Fertilization resulted in elevated nutrient concentrations, which did affect survival (2.10%–6.07%) of the fish larvae. In the second experiment, larvae were stocked at densities of 0.4 or 0.6 larvae L-1 in tanks fertilized at 4–5 days interval with OF and IF for 30 days. Growth performance of L. plumbeus larvae was affected by fish density, with significantly larger (20.04 ± 2.65 mm in total length) and higher specific growth rate (SGR; 6.97 ± 0.48% day-1) at 0.4 larvae L-1 than at 0.6 L-1. Fry production did not vary significantly between fish density treatment groups given the same fertilizer types, but survival rates were improved at 0.4 L-1. Together, production of L. plumbeus larvae in outdoor tanks can be optimized at a lower stocking density, regardless of the type of fertilizer used.
    • Article

      The identity of Limnoncaea diuncata Kokubo, 1914 (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) from Hokkaido, Japan, with the relegation of Diergasilus Do, 1981 to a junior synonym of Thersitina Norman, 1905 

      S Ohtsuka, Js Ho, K Nagasawa, J Morozinska-Gogol & W Piasecki - Systematic Parasitology, 2004 - Springer Verlag
      Both sexes of an ergasilid copepod, Limnoncaea diuncata Kokubo, 1914, are redescribed based on planktonic specimens collected from the type-locality in Hokkaido, Japan. Comparison of this species with Thersitina gasterostei (Pagenstecher, 1861) revealed that they are conspecific. Another ergasilid genus with two claws on the antenna, DiergasilusDo, 1981, is relegated to synonymy with Thersitina Norman, 1905. The diagnosis of Thersitina is amended.
    • Article

      Investigations on the feeding behavior of juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål) in brackishwater lagoons on South Tarawa, Kiribati 

      C Lückstädt & T Reiti - Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Ichthyologie, 2002 - Verlag Natur und Wissenschaft
      This study evaluated the feeding behavior of the milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål) in extensively managed brackishwater lagoons on South Tarawa, Kiribati (Central Pacific) in August 1998. Feed intake, dietary overlap, fish condition and morphometric intestine parameters were determined. The daily ration of fish was estimated using the ”modified Bajkov model”. Fish stomach content did not differ significantly between samples from day and night, but prey preferences showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Results were compared with a data set of juvenile milkfish from the Philippines raised under similar conditions.
    • magazineArticle

      Live food: A lesser known essential 

      MB Surtida - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This article is a short discussion of the requirements for live food production in aquaculture and a brief presentation of the processes involved.
    • Article

      Nursery culture of grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Forsskal) and sea bass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) in brackish water ponds: Co-feeding of zooplankton and formulated diets containing L-tryptophan 

      RSJ Gapasin, VR Alava & CL Marte - Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 2012 - Taylor & Francis
      This study compared co-feeding zooplankton (ZP, mixed copepods and mysids) and formulated diets (FD) supplemented with L-tryptophan (TRP) on the survival and growth of grouper and sea bass fry nursed in brackish water ponds. Grouper (84 fry m−3) and sea bass (150 fry m−3) were reared for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in net cages within two separate 743 m2 nursery ponds. Five treatments (with three replicates each) were compared (P < 0.05): FD-1 = ZP + basal FD (no added TRP, but containing 0.29% endogenous TRP); FD-2 = ZP + (FD 0.58% TRP); FD-3 = ZP + (FD 1.22% TRP); FD-4 = ZP + (FD 2.50% TRP); and FD-5 = minced fish (Sardinella sp.) + basal FD (no additional TRP). TRP supplementation in grouper diets produced no significant affect on growth but increased survival at rates of 0.58% and above. TRP supplementation at 2.5% (FD-4) produced significantly better sea bass growth than other diets but had no affect on survival. Zooplankton improved both survival and growth in both grouper and sea bass juveniles compared to the minced fish diet, and may be a practical and lower cost alternative to indoor nursing.
    • Article

      Nursery rearing of the Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther), at different stocking densities in cages suspended in tanks and ponds 

      RF Bombeo, AC Fermin & JD Tan-Fermin - Aquaculture Research, 2002 - Blackwell Publishing
      Growth and survival of hatchery-bred Asian catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther), fry reared at different stocking densities in net cages suspended in tanks and ponds were measured. The stocking densities used were 285, 571 and 1143 fry m−3 in tanks and 114, 228 and 457 fry m−3 in ponds. Fish were fed a formulated diet throughout the 28-day rearing period. Generally, fish reared in cages in ponds grew faster, with a specific growth rate (SGR) range of 10.3–14.6% day−1, than those in cages suspended in tanks (SGR range 9–11.3% day−1). This could be attributed to the presence of natural zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans) in the pond throughout the culture period, which served as additional food sources for catfish juveniles. In both scenarios, the fish reared at lower densities had significantly higher SGR than fish reared at higher densities. In the pond, the SGR of fish held at 228 and 457 m−3 were similar to each other but were significantly lower than those of fish held at 114 m−3. The zooplankton in ponds consisted mostly of copepods and cladocerans, in contrast to tanks, in which rotifers were more predominant. Per cent survival ranged from 85% to 89% in tanks and from 78% to 87% in ponds and did not differ significantly among stocking densities and between rearing systems. In conclusion, catfish nursery in cages suspended in tanks and ponds is density dependent. Catfish fry reared at 285 m−3 in tanks and at 114 m−3 in ponds had significantly faster growth rates than fish reared at higher densities. However, the desired fingerling size of 3–4 cm total length for stocking in grow-out culture can still be attained at stocking densities of 457 m−3 in nursery pond and 571 m−3 in tanks.
    • Article

      Nursery rearing of the Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer, fry in illuminated floating net cages with different feeding regimes and stocking densities 

      AC Fermin, MEC Bolivar & A Gaitan - Aquatic Living Resources, 1996 - Cambridge University Press
      Successful rearing of hatchery-reared sea bass, Lates calcarifer, fry in illuminated floating cages was demonstrated in a 42-day experiment. Three feeding regimes, i.e. natural zooplankton (NZ) + minced fish flesh (MFF), NZ alone, or MFF alone and two stocking densities (600 and 1 200 individuals m2) were tested in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. Fish reared in unlit cages and fed MFF alone during daytime served as the control. Results showed that no interaction existed between stocking density and feeding regime and that the two stocking densities used did not influence fish growth in terms of mean final body size. In general, sea bass reared in lit cages (NZ + MFF and NZ) grew and survived better than the control fish (MFF). However, fish reared under NZ + MFF feeding regime had the highest final mean total length (TL, 42.1 mm) and body weight (BW, 1 311.8 mg) followed by fish reared under NZ feeding regime (mean TL = 26 mm, BW = 415 mg). Fish in the unlit control cages exhibited the poorest growth (final mean TL and BW: 26 mm and 277.6 mg BW). Furthermore, specific growth rates (range: 5.7–8.5% day−1) of fish in lit cages were significantly better than those of fish in the unlit control cages (mean: 3% day−1). Percentage survival (38%) of fish stocked at 600 m−2 density and fed NZ was not significantly different from fish in the NZ + MFF feeding regime. However, increasing the density to 1 200 ind. m−2 tended to significantly decrease percentage survival (20%) of fish with NZ feeding. Fish reared in the unlit control cages had the poorest survival of 13–14%. The high percentage composition by number (CN, 88%) of copepods in the stomachs of sea bass fry fed on NZ alone and the equally high percentage feeding incidence (94%) indicated that fish fed sufficiently on natural zooplankton. Supplemental feed using minced fish flesh contributed about 43–59% of the fish diet in addition to natural zooplankton.
    • Article

      Plankton diversity in ballast water of an inter-island passenger-cargo ship calling the Philippine ports 

      BGS Sarinas, LD Gellada, MM Magramo, LO Baria, DB Tirazona, LRD Sorio & JA Tornalejo - Asian Journal of Biodiversity, 2014 - Liceo Press
      Numerous studies have been conducted on ballast water species composition and diversity in other countries but not in the Philippines. Thus, this study aimed to provide baseline information on the plankton diversity in ballast water of the inter-island passenger-cargo vessel calling the ports of Iloilo-Bacolod-Manila Cagayan de Oro, Philippines and vice-versa. Specifically, this study aimed to determine the presence of phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity and species density of this plankton measured in cells/ml using the haemacytometer technique. Composite sampling was employed having one liter of ballast water used per ballast tank. A total number of 15 genera of phytoplankton (diatom) and one genus of zooplankton were recorded. Chroococcus, Nannochloris and Protococcus had the highest cells/ml while Ankistrodesmus, Micromonas and Synedra had the lowest cells/ml. The most common phytoplankton observed in ballast tanks were Nannochloris and Protococcus. Neocalanus (copepod) was present in all ballast tanks except in ballast tank 1 (fore-peak). The phytoplankton and zooplankton composition was found to be non-invasive in nature showing its ubiquity in the marine environment. This study provides an initial assessment or preliminary list of phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity from the ballast water of a passenger-cargo vessel calling the Philippine ports.
    • Article

      Population dynamics of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tsuensis in a brackish-water pond in the Philippines 

      MSN Golez, A Ohno, JD Toledo, Y Tanaka & T Ishimaru - Fisheries Science, 2002 - The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science
      The occurrence pattern and population dynamics of Acartia tsuensis were investigated in a brackish-water pond in Panay Island in central Philippines by implementing both bi-monthly and daily sampling schemes. A. tsuensis occurred in the pond during the dry season (November-April) when the salinity of the water is in the range of 14 ~ 40 ppt but was completely absent at lower salinities. An almost constant rate of development from the nauplius 2 through to copepodite 5 stages of A. tsuensis was observed both in the pond and in the laboratory. The generation time ranged from 5.9~11.3 days. Fecundity had a positive linear corelation with chlorophyll a. Salinity and chlorophyll a affect the stage duration, mortality, and fecundity of A. tsuensis in the pond.
    • Article

      Preliminary investigation of feeding performance of larvae of early red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, reared with mixed zooplankton 

      M Doi, JD Toledo, MSN Golez, M de los Santos & A Ohno - Hydrobiologia, 1997 - Springer Verlag
      Larvae of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, were reared in outdoor tanks with nauplii of copepods (mainly Pseudodiaptomus annandalei and Acartia tsuensis) and/or rotifers, Brachionus rotundiformis. Grouper larvae successfully started feeding on early stage nauplii even though their abundance was as low as approximately 100 individuals l-1 and showed better survival and growth thereafter compared to those fed with rotifers only. Incidence of feeding reached 100% on day 4 when nauplii were available and only on day 9 when rotifers were given alone. Larvae seemed to be poor feeders at the onset of feeding, attempting to capture any food organisms in the tank water. Selective feeding ability of larvae started from day 4 and the larvae then preferred to feed on medium- and large-size nauplii rather than on rotifers as they grew. Larvae appeared to have a better chance at surviving in the presence of early stage nauplii, which were probably caught more easily than rotifers.
    • Article

      A review of zooplankton in Philippine lakes 

      F Petersen & MH Carlos - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1984 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      This is a review of zooplankton in Philippine lakes including early and present works. A taxonomic list is given and major species are emphasized.