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    • Article

      Survival and growth of bighead carp fry exposed to low salinities 

      LMB Garcia, CMH Garcia, AFS Pineda, EA Gammad, J Canta, SPD Simon, GV Hilomen-Garcia, AC Gonzal & CB Santiago - Aquaculture International, 1999 - Kluwer
      Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Oshima) fry of various ages (11, 18, and 35 days post-hatch) were exposed to the low salinities encountered during the annual intrusion of seawater in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Practical indices of salinity tolerance assessed the effect of a 96 h direct exposure to low salinities (0–16‰). Mean (MST) and median survival times (MST50) of fry decreased as salinity of rearing medium increased. Younger fry were less able to tolerate exposure to these salinities than their older cohorts. Median lethal salinity after 96 h (MLS) revealed higher tolerance among 35–day old fry (7.6‰) than 11 (2.3‰) and 18–day old fry (6.0‰), demonstrating that survival in saline water depends on their age at initial exposure to low salinities. Mean body weight of 18–day old fry reared in 0 and 2‰ for 3 and 4 weeks was higher than for those reared in 4 and 6‰ for the same period. Growth over these periods was inversely related with the range of salinities tested. These results demonstrate that, despite their known stenohalinity, bighead carp fry possess some degree of osmoregulatory capability, allowing them to survive and grow in lakes subjected periodically to saltwater inflow.
    • Article

      Tolerance of seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker) juveniles to various salinities 

      GV Hilomen-Garcia, R Delos Reyes & CMH Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2003 - Blackwell Publishing
      In line with current conservation efforts, some success in the captive breeding of the seahorse Hippocampus kuda (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) has been achieved. To evaluate the salinity tolerance of these hatchery-bred juveniles, 9-week-old H. kuda were transferred without prior acclimatization from ambient full strength seawater (32–33 ppt) to salinities ranging from freshwater to 85 ppt. Survival, growth, and total body water content were determined after 4 and 18 days of exposure. Juvenile H. kuda are able to survive in dilute seawater (15 ppt) for at least 18 days without any compromise in growth (both wet and dry body weight), survival, and total body water. Fish abruptly transferred to freshwater succumbed within 4–24 h, while survival of 5 ppt-reared fish decreased to ca. 65% in 18 days. Although 10 ppt-reared seahorses had growth and survival comparable with the control (30 ppt seawater), total body water was significantly elevated indicating reduced adaptability. The upper limit of H. kuda salinity tolerance was 50 ppt. Fish reared at salinities ≥55 ppt succumbed within 24 h. Like several other marine teleosts, growth and survival of juvenile H. kuda tended to peak in diluted seawater salinities of 15 and 20 ppt. These results indicate the possibility of growing hatchery-bred H. kuda in brackishwater environments.