Now showing items 1423-1442 of 3263

    • Article

      Growth response of cultured larvae of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) in outdoor tanks in relation to fertilizer type and fish density 

      FA Aya & LMB Garcia - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2016 - Wiley
      This study evaluated the effects of fertilizer type and fish density on early growth and survival of silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864) larvae reared in outdoor tanks. In the first experiment, larvae (1.92 ± 0.09 mm total length) were stocked into nine, 4 m3 tanks at an initial density of 0.5 larvae L-1 and reared for 42 days at an ambient temperature of 28.8–30.7°C. Three treatments with three replicates each were compared: organic (chicken manure, OF) or inorganic fertilizers (ammonium phosphate, IF) applied once every 2 weeks, and the unfertilized (NF) tanks serving as the control group. Water quality, zooplankton densities, survival or growth of L. plumbeus larvae did not vary significantly in either fertilized or unfertilized tanks. Fertilization resulted in elevated nutrient concentrations, which did affect survival (2.10%–6.07%) of the fish larvae. In the second experiment, larvae were stocked at densities of 0.4 or 0.6 larvae L-1 in tanks fertilized at 4–5 days interval with OF and IF for 30 days. Growth performance of L. plumbeus larvae was affected by fish density, with significantly larger (20.04 ± 2.65 mm in total length) and higher specific growth rate (SGR; 6.97 ± 0.48% day-1) at 0.4 larvae L-1 than at 0.6 L-1. Fry production did not vary significantly between fish density treatment groups given the same fertilizer types, but survival rates were improved at 0.4 L-1. Together, production of L. plumbeus larvae in outdoor tanks can be optimized at a lower stocking density, regardless of the type of fertilizer used.
    • Article

      Growth response of Nile tilapia fry to salinity stress in the presence of an ‘internal reference’ fish 

      ZU Basiao, RV Eguia & RW Doyle - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing
      Growth of three strains of Oreochromis niloticus L. fry exposed to salinity stress in the presence of an internal reference fish were compared. The Central Luzon State University (CLSU) strain was obtained from the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, CLSU, Philippines. The ISRAEL strain was acquired from the Philippine government's Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources National Freshwater Fisheries Technology Center (BFAR-NFFTC), Munoz, Nueva Ecija. The National Inland Fisheries Institute (NIFI) strain was obtained from the NIFI, Bangkok, Thailand. Eight to nine full-sib families (replicates) per strain were split into two groups. One group was grown in freshwater for 2 weeks, acclimated to 32 ppt and reared for 2 weeks and finally grown in freshwater for another 2 weeks. Another group was contemporaneously grown in freshwater polyethylene tanks for 6 weeks. Each replicate family included a size-matched internal reference population of red tilapia strain. Two-way analysis of variance (anova) revealed no significant strain differences (P=0.081; r2=0.106). However, analysis of covariance with the internal reference strain used as a covariate showed significant (P=0.049; r2=0.638) strain effects on specific growth (based on standard length measurements). The ISRAEL strain showed consistently better growth rate in both saline and freshwater environments than the NIFI and CLSU strains. We estimated the statistical power of the two-way anova (ϕ=√(k′−1)(factor MS−s2)/(k′s>2); Zar 1984) to be ∼0.30. There was a 70% probability of a Type II error and no true difference in the growth of the three strains was detected. The use of internal reference strain as a covariate improved the r2 from 0.106 to 0.638 and increased the efficiency of the test in detecting a true difference. Other strain comparison studies in our laboratory at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department showed that the ISRAEL strain shows better growth than the NIFI and CLSU strains in a crowding stress tolerance experiment, when fed only with rice bran and under restrictive feeding regimes.
    • Article

      Growth response of three Oreochromis niloticus strains to feed restriction 

      MRR Eguia & RV Eguia - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1993 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Growth of fry from three test strains of Nile tilapia (CLSU, ISRAEL and NIFI) fed restrictively and nonrestrictively were compared. Four-week old fry were matched for size with similarly aged red tilapia fry which served as an internal reference. Fish were stocked in 60l aquaria at a ratio of 25 tests:25 reference fish. Test fish were fed commercial fish feed ad libitum during the initial and final two weeks and rations of the same feed at 10% of the fish biomass during weeks 3 and 4. Control fish were fed commercial fish feed ad libitum throughout the six week experiment. Although feed restriction retarded growth in all three test strains, growth differed significantly between strains. Under both restrictive and nonrestrictive feeding regimes, the ISRAEL strain grew better than the CLSU and NIFI strains.
    • Article

      Growth responses of Spirulina platensis to some physico-chemical factors and the kinetics of phosphorus utilization 

      SF Baldia, K Fukami, T Nishijima & Y Hata - Fisheries Science, 1995 - Japanese Society of Fisheries Science
      The growth responses of Spirulina platensis NIES-46, a brackishwater strain originally isolated from Lake Texcoco Mexico, to some physico-chemical factors and nutrients were investigated. The optimum conditions for growth were the following: light intensity of 160 µE m-2 sec-1, temperature of 30°C, pH 10, and chlorinity of 0.55‰. NIES-46 strain could utilize both inorganic and organic phosphorus sources. Values on the different growth parameters for orthophosphate and other organic phosphorus sources were as followings: half-saturation constant of 0.02-0.07 mg-P/l; maximum growth rate of 0.8-1.0/d; minimum cell quota of 0.08-0.32 pg-P/cell, and level for saturated growth yield of 0.3-1.0 mg-P/l. The result that this species utilized effectively a rather wide range of both inorganic and organic phosphorus and showed a high growth rate suggests that mass production of this species is possible by recycling organic waste.
    • Conference paper

      Growth with Equity in Mindanao (GEM) Program and the seaweed industry 

      AO Isidro - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Growth, agar yield and quality of selected agarophyte species from the Philippines 

      KG Araño, GC Trono Jr., NE Montaño, AQ Hurtado & RD Villanueva - Botanica Marina, 2000 - Walter de Gruyter
      Three local agarophyte species (Gracilaria firma, Gracilaria sp. and Gracilariopsis bailinae) were grown under controlled outdoor flow-through culture conditions. Growth rates and agar characteristics of the three species were determined. Gracilaria firma showed superior growth and agar quality among the three species. It exhibited the highest growth rate, highest agar gel strength and was observed to be highly resistant to epiphytes. Growth experiments under various light and ammonium combinations showed that the highest photon flux density level (900 μ mol m−2s−1) and moderate ammonium (150 μM NH4Cl) concentration gave the highest growth rates for all species. The single and interactive effects of light and ammonium enrichment on growth and agar characteristics of the three species were highly significant.
    • Article

      Growth, daily ration, and gastric evacuation rates of milkfish (Chanos chanos) fed supplemental diet and natural food 

      NS Sumagaysay - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1993 - Blackwell Publishing
      Growth, daily ration, and gastric evacuation rates of milkfish (Chanos chanos) that fed on natural food and supplement diet were evaluated. Milkfish fingerlings (5.5g) were stocked at 1.5 fish/m2 in ten 12 m2 concrete tanks layered with 15-cm thick earthen bottoms. All tanks were regularly fertilized (16–20–0 and chicken manure) to maintain natural food production; 4 of the tanks additionally received a supplemental diet containing 34.3% protein and 4290 kcal/kg gross energy. Estimates or daily ration (based on dry weight of stomach contents) were calculated using the Elliot and Person (1978) and Eggers 1977) models. Gastric evacuation rate was lower in fish that fed on natural food (1.57) compared to fish fed a supplemental diet (1.79). Consequently, the lower rate resulted in lower food intake and slower fish growth. When fish were provided a high quality supplemental diet, daily rations for fingerlings (35 g) to marketable size (116 g) ranged approximately from 0.60 to 19.68 kcal/fish/day. The deviation in daily ration (kcal/fish/day) from the above estimates may indicate the insufficient quantity of dietary energy taken by fish from natural food alone, which could be provided by supplemental diet.
    • Article

      Growth, maturity and induced spawning of mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, broodstock reared in concrete tanks 

      AC Emata, JP Damaso & BE Eullaran - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1999 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, fry (n=30) were collected in 1993 and reared in concrete tanks. They were fed trash fish every other day initially at 10% to 5%, until they reached three years. They reached 4.18 plus or minus 0.14 kg (mean body weight) after five years in captivity. Males matured in four years (mean body weight 2.55 kg, mean total length 49.6 cm) and females in five years (3.92 kg, 57.0 cm). As with other lutjanids, L. argentimaculatus exhibited separate sexes and no sexual dimorphism. Mangrove red snapper broodstock were sexually mature from April to October coinciding with the appearance of fry in the wild and the breeding season of wild-caught adults. Reproductive performance (egg production and quality) of first-time spawning mangrove red snapper broodstock was poorer than that of wild-caught adults. However, the results demonstrate the feasibility of developing mangrove red snapper broodstock in concrete tanks to ensure the sustainability of snapper aquaculture.
    • Conference paper

      Growth, molting, food ingestion, and absorption in juvenile Macrobrachium rosebergii in relation to dissolved oxygen 

      JA Llobrera & WH Neill - In N De Pauw, E Jaspers, H Ackefors & N Wilkins (Eds.), Aquaculture - A Biotechnology in Progress. Proceedings of the International Conference Aquaculture Europe '87, 2-5 June 1987, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989 - European Aquaculture Society
      Growth, molting, food ingestion, and absorption in juvenile Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 7.7ppm dissolved oxygen (DO), 29°C, and 0.5°/oo salinity. DO levels were maintained by bubbling nitrogen gas against water flowing down through PVC gas-exchange columns. Prawns (0.58 to 0.60g dry weight) were grown individually in 4 l glass chambers for 40 days and fed in excess twice daily. In a separate experiment, food ingestion and absorption in prawns (0.66 to 1.36g dry weight acclimated to the tour DO levels were determined gravimetrically. Growth rate was significantly reduced only at 2.5ppm DO. The mean growth rates, as percentage dry weight increase per day, were 0.76, 1.56, 1.81, and 1.76% at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 7.7ppm DO, respectively. Molting was not inhibited at the tour DO levels tested. Intermolt periods of all prawns ranged trom 8 to 18 days with a mean of 13.6 days. Food ingestion was reduced at 2.5ppm DO, but apparent absorption of dry matter was independent of oxygen at the tour levels tested. Mean ingestion rates, as percentage of dry body weight were 5.51, 8.85, 8.05, and 10.35%. The mean apparent absorption efficiency of all prawns was 87.95%. This study showed that juvenile M. rosenbergii requires about 3.5ppm DO to grow optimally in the laboratory. Reduction in growth of M. rosenbergii at DO levels below 3.5ppm is due in part to a reduction in food intake and not to changes in absorption efficiency and molting frequency.
    • Article

      Growth, plasma cortisol, liver and kidney histology, and resistance to vibriosis in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus fed onion and ginger 

      MJS Apines-Amar, EC Amar & JP Faisan Jr. - Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation, 2013 - Bioflux
      The health-promoting effects of dietary onion and ginger were studied in brown marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary onion and ginger on growth, cortisol levels, histology and disease resistance in the fish. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain either onion (2%), ginger (2%), β-glucan (1%) or vitamin C (3%) and a control diet (without immunostimulants). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with an average weight of 10.85±0.69 g. Fish supplemented with either of the immunostimulants exhibited a significantly higher growth compared to the control group. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were significantly higher in the onion and ginger-supplemented fish than the control. Cortisol level was higher in the control compared to the immunostimulant-fed groups with onion and ginger-fed fish showing significantly lower cortisol levels. When experimentally infected with Vibrio harveyi, fish fed onion or ginger exhibited significantly reduced mortality when compared with the control and β-glucan, but not when compared with the vitamin C-fed group. Liver sections sampled 4 days postinfection showed no remarkable pathology except for the slight reduction in glycogen granules in the supplement-fed fish. The liver of non-supplemented infected fish showed necrosis, fatty globule deposition, vacuolation, and presence of short rod-shaped bacteria. Kidney sections in the supplemented groups, likewise, did not show significant pathology similar to the uninfected control, whereas those of infected control fish showed necrosis of the tubules and glomeruli resulting in severely altered morphology of the tissues and presence of bacteria in the necrotic areas. As a result of circumventing tissue damage, wound healing was faster in fish supplemented with ginger, onion, and vitamin C compared to the β-glucan and the control groups. This study showed the benefits of onion and ginger in promoting growth and alleviating stress and severity of vibriosis in grouper.
    • Article

      Growth, survival and feed conversion of juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fed a betaine/amino acid additive 

      VD Peñaflorida & E Virtanen - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1996 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Diets low in animal but high in plant protein were enhanced with a chemoattractant FinnStim (FS), a betaine/amino additive. These were fed to juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in three tank experiments. All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (35% protein) and isocaloric. In run 1, where soybean meal was used as the plant protein source (33%), graded levels of FS (0 to 2.0%) were added to the basic mix (B). Shrimp fed the diet with 1% FS had a significantly ( alpha =0.05) higher weight gain than the other treatments and a feed conversion ratio (FCR) which was higher than B and B+2% FS but not significantly different from the other FS levels. However, survival, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed intake were similar. In run 2 diet palatability, which may be affected by plant protein, was considered. Diets with a lower soybean meal content (18%) and 16% papaya leaf meal, with and without 1% FS, were tested. A higher weight gain and SGR were obtained for shrimp fed FS but survival, feed intake and FCR were not significantly different from those without FS. In run 3, where leaf meal was increased to 25%, shrimp fed 1% FS yielded a significantly better weight gain, SGR, feed intake and FCR, but survival rates were not significantly different. FS did not increase feed intake but may have caused faster feed consumption, resulting in less feed disintegration and nutrient loss. It could also have acted as a stimulant and counteracted the palatability problem of the 25% leaf meal diet. However, much of the response was evidently caused by the physiological role of betaine as methyl donor and osmoprotectant.
    • Article

      Growth, survival and feed conversion of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed diets containing Bayo-n-ox, a commercial growth promoter 

      CB Santiago - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1991 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of a commercial growth promoter, Bayo-n-ox, on Nile tilapia fingerlings (mean initial weight 3.6 g). After 6 weeks, the weight gain of fish given 25 mg Bayo-n-ox/kg body weight was somewhat higher than that of the control fish. A slight growth depression was manifested by fish given 50 mg Bayo-n-ox/kg body weight. Total length followed a trend similar to that of weight gain. However, growth, the feed conversion ratio and the survival rate were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among treatments.
    • Article

      Growth, survival and macronutrient composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius larvae fed with Chaetoceros calcitrans and Tetraselmis chuii 

      E Tobias-Quinitio & CT Villegas - Aquaculture, 1982 - Elsevier
      Penaeus monodon larvae were reared from zoea1 (Z1) to mysis3 (M3) using two different algal feeds, Chaetocero calcitrans and Tetraselmis chuii. Artemia nauplii were added to both treatments at mysis2. Mean survival and growth rates in both treatments were different at 5% level of significance on the second and third day of culture, but did not differ during the mysis stage and the end of the 8-day culture period.

      Z3 and M3 larvae fed with C. calcitrans had a lower crude protein but a higher lipid content than T. chuii-fed larvae. Differences in carbohydrate content were noticed in M3 larvae. The implication of the findings are discussed.
    • Article

      The growth, survival and production of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) cultured with green mussel (Perna viridis) in semi-intensive ponds 

      KG Corre, VL Corre & W Gallardo - UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 1997 - University of Philippines in the Visayas
      The culture of tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) with and without green mussels (Perna viridis) was compared in terms of animal growth, survival, production, and pond water quality. Tiger shrimps (2.6 g) were stocked at 50,000/ha in six 1,000 m2 earthen ponds. Green mussels (mean shell-on weight of 11 g) were stocked at 100,000/ha on ropes suspended from bamboo rafts in three of these ponds. The growth and survival of tiger shrimps were not significantly different when cultured with or without mussels. Higher shrimp production (1,528.2 kg/ha) was obtained when these were cultured with mussels than without (1,327.5 kg/ha). Water quality did not vary significantly between treatments but ponds with both shrimp and mussel had lesser algae, lower biological oxygen demand and particulate organic matter levels, and generally higher morning dissolved oxygen concentrations compared with ponds without mussels. Results show the potential of green mussels as biological filters in shrimp ponds.
    • Conference paper

      Growth, survival, proximate and fatty acid composition of sandworm Perinereis quatrefagesi (Grube, 1878) fed variable feed types 

      JB Biñas, VR Alava & WL Campos - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Sandworm Perinereis quatrefagesi has been used as feed for crustacean broodstock due to its reproductive-enhancing properties particularly protein and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Juvenile sandworms collected along the coast of Guimbal, Iloilo were reared in tanks and fed three nutritionally variable feed types: fish fecal waste, fish meal and rice bran. After 56 days, feeds affected (p<0.05) sandworm growth and crude fat contents but not (p<0.05) survival and crude protein levels. Survival rates were 86~c3 to 89~c5% while crude protein levels were 57.0 ~c 2.5 to 68.0 ~c 5.3 g 100 g-1 dry weight. High crude protein fish meal promoted better (p<0.05) growth (2.2~c0.4% day-1) than fish feces (1.2~c0.3% day-1) and rice bran (1.1~c0.3 % day-1). However, crude fat content of sandworm was higher (p<0.05) in rice bran (18.9~c1.6 g 100 g-1) than in fecal waste (13.6~c2.9 g 100 g-1) and fish meal (10.5~c3.1 g 100 g-1) treatments. Levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) such as 20:4 n-6, 22:6 n-3 and 20:5 n-3 did not differ significantly (p>0.05) at 0.41~c0.21 to 0.89~c0.51 g 100 g-1, 0.21~c0.24 to 0.43~c0.22 g 100 g-1 and 0.57~c0.46 to 0.88~c0.31 g 100 g-1, respectively.

      The study demonstrated that P. quatrefagesi: (1) can survive well in nutritionally variable feed types although it grows better in high protein diet; (2) crude protein levels were high regardless of feed types; and (3) crude fat content was high in high fat diet but n-3 and n-6 HUFAs were not significantly different regardless of feed types.
    • Technical Report

      A guide to induced spawning and larval rearing of milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskal) 

      JV Juario & MN Duray - 1983 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre
      Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; No. 10
      The techniques for the artificial propagation of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) developed at SEAFDEC are presented. These include: 1) capture and transport of spawners; 2) determination of sex and weight and maturity of fish; 3) induced spawning (preparation of injection, males, females); 4) fertilization and incubation; 5) larval rearing; and 6) mass production of larval food.
    • Technical Report

      A guide to induced spawning and larval rearing of milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskal) 

      JV Juario & MN Duray - 1982 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre
      Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; No. 10
      The techniques for the artificial propagation of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) developed at SEAFDEC are presented. These include: 1) capture and transport of spawners; 2) determination of sex and weight and maturity of fish; 3) induced spawning (preparation of injection, males, females); 4) fertilization and incubation; 5) larval rearing; and 6) mass production of larval food.
    • Guide to readers 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - In Training Handbook on Rural Aquaculture, 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      In the ASEAN region, fisheries play an important role in producing food, generating income, and accelerating national social and economic development. Ironically, the fishing communities are the least benefited from the bounties of the vast fishery resources in the region. To make it worse, the fisherfolk were further marginalized in the development and exploitation of the fishery resources especially in aquaculture during the past decades. In fact, they are now suffering from the destruction of fishery resources caused by illegal and irresponsible fishing and aquaculture practices. Fishery communities are exposed to multiple dimensions of poverty (inadequate services, low level of education, politically poorly organized communities, and vulnerability), which are complicated to solve within a short term. In order to address the grinding poverty among the fisherfolk, access to technology may need to be improved. One way is disseminating the science-based technologies on aquaculture that were developed by SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department after 35 years of research-and-development. Hence, this handbook, which gives fisherfolk communities a lot of options to earn from aquaculture. The important thing though is that this handbook presents the technologies in the context of prudent resource management and resource use such that communities and aquaculture entrepreneurs will make sustainable living and enable future generations to do the same.
    • Book

      A guide to small-scale marine finfish hatchery technology 

      SY Sim, MA Rimmer, JD Toledo, K Sugama, I Rumengan, K Williams & MJ Phillips - 2005 - Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
      Series: Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network; Publication No. 2005–01
      Recent improvements in hatchery production technology for high-value marine finfish species such as groupers have led to an increased interest in setting up hatcheries to produce fingerlings for aquaculture. Small-scale hatcheries make this technology available to poor people in developing countries. Capital costs for small-scale hatcheries are relatively low, and the profitability of these ventures ensures rapid payback of capital investment.

      This guide provides an outline of the requirements to establish a small-scale marine finfish hatchery, particularly the economic aspects. It is intended to provide sufficient information for potential investors to decide whether investment in such ventures is appropriate for them. The guide provides some basic technical information in order to give an indication of the level of technical expertise necessary to operate a small-scale marine finfish hatchery. However, it is not intended as a detailed technical guide to the operation of small-scale hatcheries. Additional resources, such as training courses in marine finfish hatchery production, are available and these are listed in this document.

      Development of small-scale hatcheries may be more appropriate where there are existing marine hatchery operations, e.g. for shrimp or milkfish. By definition, small-scale hatcheries do not have broodstock facilities, so a supply of fertilised eggs (usually from a larger hatchery) is essential. Access to fertilised eggs and experienced hatchery staff will limit the application of small-scale hatchery technology. Despite this, there is considerable potential for this technology to be widely adopted.

      This guide has been written by a team of experts in marine finfish aquaculture who have been involved in a multinational collaborative research project since 1999.
    • Technical Report

      A guide to the establishment and maintenance of milkfish broodstock 

      CL Marte, GF Quinitio, LMB Garcia & FJ Lacanilao - 1984 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development
      Series: Technical report / SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department; no. 11
      The manual describes methods used at the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in order to establish milkfish broodstock. It is presented under the following major section headings: Establishing broodstock farms; Farms for rearing bangus juveniles; Maturation cages for rearing broodstock to maturity; Gathering data; Spawning and egg collection; and Larval rearing.