Now showing items 371-390 of 3209

    • Conference paper

      Background and objectives of the Meeting on Current Status of Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurrence, Surveillance, Research and Training 

      K Nagasawa - In CR Lavilla-Pitogo & K Nagasawa (Eds.), Transboundary Fish Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training. Proceedings of … Diseases in Southeast Asia: Occurence, Surveillance, Research and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-24 June 2004, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Backyard fish farming 

      AP Surtida - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      A backyard fishpond design 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Flyer

      Backyard hatchery. 

      Anon. - 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The flyer contains information on the facility, which aims to demonstrate proftable operations of abalone and marine fsh small-scale hatcheries requiring minimal investment while showcasing AQD technologies.
    • Book chapter

      Bacteria and toxin isolated from the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and production of monoclonal antibodies and diagnostic kits to monitor red tide and toxic mussels 

      TM Espino, RM Aspiras, NG Sabino, E Parreño, RL Macasadia & MLF del Mundo - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Six bacterial isolates obtained from the red tide dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum were found to be toxic. The most toxic isolate MM-11 was cultured, characterized, and identified to be Micrococcus luteus. MM-11 and M. luteus had similar DNA bands on agarose gel, and contained 70.0–75.5% mole G+C. Several Micrococcus species were isolated from pure culture and field samples of Pyrodinium and from red tide affected mussels. MM-11 and the other Micrococcus isolates tested positive for saxitoxin. MM-11 was grown on seawater agar; peak cell density of 1.36 x 1010 cells/ml occurred after 3 days of incubation. Toxin production was directly proportional to cell density. The crude toxin from the optimized culture of MM-11 resulted in death of mice in only 1.8–2.4 min, equivalent to a toxicity of 5.9–13.4 mouse units. MM-11 was inoculated into healthy mussels and yielded bacterial isolates that had characteristics of MM-11, and extracts of toxin similar to MM-11 toxin. Mice injected with extracts from the inoculated mussels showed symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning (dyspnea 12–15 min after injection), but did not die. Partially purified extracts from red tide affected mussels killed mice in 3.4 min, equivalent to a toxicity of 3.4 mouse units. Addition of 5, 25 and 50% coconut milk to this toxin extract reduced the toxicity to only 34%, 29%, and 25% of that without coconut milk. The ELISA test similarly showed reduction of saxitoxin concentration from 4.78 g toxin/g at 5% added coconut milk to 3.62 g toxin/g at 50% added coconut milk.

      PSP toxins were extracted from bacteria and red tide affected mussels. The 24 purified extracts of MM-11 toxin were shown by mouse bioassay to have concentrations from 0.6 to 71.6 μg toxin/g bacteria. Green mussels sampled from Bataan and Zambales during incidence of red tides from 1994 to 1998 contained lower amounts of toxin per unit weight than the bacterial extracts. Analysis of the MM-11 toxin by HPLC-fluorometry showed two fractions similar to those of standard gonyautoxin 1 and gonyautoxin 3.
    • Article | Short communication

      Bacteria associated with infection at hormone-implantation sites among milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), adults 

      G Lio-Po, C Pitogo & C Marte - Journal of Fish Diseases, 1986 - Blackwell Publishing
      SEAFDEC Contribution No. 164. Paper presented at the Second International Warmwater Fish Conference at Laie, Hawaii, 5–8 February 1985.
    • Article

      Bacteria from seawater used in Penaeus monodon larval cultures 

      AT Llobrera & RQ Gacutan - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1977 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Bacteria in the seawater used in P. monodon hatchery operations were isolated on Bachmann's agar. The total plate counts in 25 isolations ranged from 1.0 - 5.0 x 102 to 5.1 -10.0 x 105 cells per ml. Out of 124 isolates, 98 (79 percent) were Gram-positive and 26 (21 percent) were Gram-negative. Micrococcus and Staphylococcus were dominant in the former group, while Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Flavobacterium and Alcaligenes were most numerous in the latter. Twenty-nine of the Gram-positive isolates closely resembled Peptostreptococcus, Planococcus, and Pediococcus.
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial depuration of grossly-contaminated oysters, Crassostrea iredalei. 

      Oysters (Crassostrea iredalei ) from a commercial growing area in Capiz, Iloilo, Philippines, were purchased from the Iloilo City Central Market and used in a depuration trial within 24 hours of collection. Total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) levels were determined using the five-tube, most probable number (MPN) technique. Samplings were carried out in three areas in the tank: (a) near the water trickle are, (b) at the middle and (c) near the water outflow area. FC proved to be a better and more consistent indicator of depuration efficiency than TC which gave erratic levels in the first 24 hours. The oysters with initial FC MPN of 2.2 x 10 super(5)/100 g meat depurated to acceptable levels (< 230 MPN/100 g meat) after 48 hours except those in the middle of the tank (490 MPN/100 g). This suggests the presence of an "indifferent" or "dead" spot. Nevertheless, the same oysters depurated successfully within 72 hours. Ranges of chemical and physical parameters in the depuration water were: temperature, 27.0-29.5 degree C; salinity, 30.5-32.0 ppt; and dissolved oxygen, 4.0-6.2 mg/l.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial diseases 

      EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fish and crustaceans that are not weakened by poor environmental conditions, or by other causes, such as parasitic infestation, nutritional deficiency, handling stress, or chemical intoxication, are more resistant to bacterial infections. This is due to the presence of a large amount of bactericidal substances in the blood, which helps overcome infections. So, the best precaution against the occurrence of bacterial infections is to provide the fish with optimum environmental conditions, adequate amounts of the right kinds of food and avoidance of stress, including overcrowding. Vaccination/ immunization and genetic manipulation (i.e., the development of specific pathogen resistant fry) are also some ways of preventing bacterial diseases. The use of antibiotics should always be an option of the last resort.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial diseases 

      EA Tendencia & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Bacteria are very common in the aquatic environment. Most bacterial disease agents are part of the normal flora of the water. They cause disease only when the fish are stressed due to poor environmental conditions, inadequate diet and poor husbandry techniques.

      This chapter focuses on the most common bacterial diseases of groupers.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial diseases 

      EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Fish and crustaceans that are not weakened by poor environmental conditions, or by other causes, such as parasitic infestation, nutritional deficiency, handling stress, or chemical intoxication, are more resistant to bacterial infections. This is due to the presence of a large amount of bactericidal substances in the blood, which helps overcome infections. So, the best precaution against the occurrence of bacterial infections is to provide the fish with optimum environmental conditions, adequate amounts of the right kinds of food and avoidance of stress, including overcrowding. Vaccination/ immunization and genetic manipulation (i.e., the development of specific pathogen resistant fry) are also some ways of preventing bacterial diseases. The use of antibiotics should always be an option of the last resort.
    • Article

      Bacterial diseases in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña - Fish Pathology, 1998 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      The hatchery system for Penaeus monodon evolved from the Japanese community culture system to the modified Galveston method and this shift in culture technique triggered the outbreak of diseases due to opportunistic bacteria. Whereas, sporadic infestation with filamentous bacteria and shell disease were the main bacterial diseases seen in earlier larval culture systems, hatcheries using the modified Galveston method experienced disease outbreaks due to systemic bacterial infection. Although several types of vibrios have been implicated in the epizootics, the dominant species seen were non-sucrose-fermenting vibrios, mainly luminescent Vibrio harveyi. To understand the course of infection, the entry of bacteria in the hatchery was investigated by determining the components and additives which encouraged their growth and dominance. As a result, several approaches to prevent and control bacterial disease have been implemented such as water treatment, hygienic spawning and egg handling, maintaining ecological balance within the system, and chemotherapy. In shrimp grow-out culture, early reports of bacterial problems were limited to shell disease, filamentous bacterial infestation and tail rot. In the last quarter of 1993, however, mass mortality associated with massive bacterial infection in the digestive organ of shrimp started occurring and contributed largely to the collapse of shrimp grow-out activities. An epidemiological study was conducted to understand the spread of infection. Several approaches to prevent or control the problem have been attempted such as the use of reservoirs, water treatment, chemotherapy, maintaining ecological balance within the system through the application of probiotics, and other system modifications.
    • magazineArticle

      Bacterial diseases in tiger shrimp culture in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial diseases of penaeid shrimps: an Asian view 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In M Shariff, JR Arthur & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II : Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 25-29 October 1993, Phuket, Thailand, 1995 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      In the past 5 Yr, bacterial diseases have become limiting factors in penaeid culture systems, their effects becoming directly proportional to the growth of the industry in terms of severity and imoact. Although eight bacterial genera have been associated with these problems, only two groups accur quit commonly: filamentous bacteria and vibrios, with the latter beibg more impact. Many Vibrio species have been reported in penaeids: Vibrio alginolyticus, V.cholerae (non-01), V. damsela, V. fluvilis, V.nereis, V. splendidus, V. tubiashii, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. harveyi. Interestingly, the last three species, all non-sucrosefermenters, are the most dominat. Diagnosis has beed done mostly through conventional bacteriology and histopathology, although development and use of more rapid detection methods like indirect fluorescent antibody technique, monoclonal antibodies, and other enzyme immunoassays are in demand to improve monitoring and survellance. Because of the conflict between the use of chemotherapeutants and the evironmental hazards that go with it, many researches are now poised on non-medicinal approches to solve bacterial diseases problems.
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial exoskeletal lesions of the tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. 

      GD Lio-Po & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, 17-22 April 1989, Tokyo, Japan, 1990 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Tank- and pond-reared Penaeus monodon with exoskeletal lesions were examined. The incidence rate was up to 36% for broodstock in concrete tanks and to 20% for pond-reared prawns. The increase in disease incidence was related to prawn age or duration of culture. Bacterial isolation yielded mostly Vibrio spp. Pathogenicity was tested on healthy P. monodon juveniles by a combination of injury and exposure to the test bacteria. Cumulative mortality was 60% within 72 hours in stabbed prawns and 20-40% after 96 hours for superficially-cut prawns. Growth of the bacteria in culture was active in 0.5-8% NaCl and at 12-40 degree C. In-vitro, test isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; and resistant to erythromycin, furanace, kanamycin and streptomycin.
    • Article

      Bacterial flora in the hepatopancreas of pond-reared Penaeus monodon juveniles with luminous vibriosis 

      EM Leaño, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & MG Paner - Aquaculture, 1998 - Elsevier
      Quantification and characterization of bacterial flora in the hepatopancreas (hp) of pond-reared Penaeus monodon juveniles affected with luminous bacteria were conducted in 1994 and 1995. Shrimp samples were taken from 23 grow-out ponds, 14 of which had disease outbreaks. Luminous bacterial (LB) load of the shrimps' hp with (mean=2.4×101 colony forming units (CFU)/hp) and without (mean=0.3×101 CFU/hp) disease outbreaks were comparable during the first 15 days of culture (DOC). During disease outbreaks at 18 to 32 DOC, however, LB load of affected shrimps (mean=9.0×104 CFU/hp) were higher than healthy shrimps (mean=7.0×101 CFU/hp). At 50 to 60 DOC, levels of LB were comparable in older shrimps with or without disease. Total viable and presumptive Vibrio counts were also comparable in both shrimp samples from 1 to 60 DOC. Characterization of the 172 bacterial isolates collected showed that most (90.12%) were Vibrio species dominated by V. harveyi (27.91%), V. splendidus II (13.37%) and V. parahaemolyticus (10.46%).
    • Article

      Bacterial flora of milkfish, Chanos chanos, eggs and larvae 

      RD Fernandez, EA Tendencia, EM Leaño & MN Duray - Fish Pathology, 1996 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Aerobic bacterial flora of eggs and larvae of milkfish, Chanos chanos, was investigated. Microflora in the incubating water of egg, rearing water of larvae, water source, and larval food was also analyzed.

      Aerobic bacterial flora of milkfish eggs was largely influenced by the bacterial flora in the incubating water. Both in eggs and in the incubating water Pseudomonas species were the dominant bacteria. During milkfish larval rearing, intestinal aerobic bacterial flora was examined at days 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 18, and 21. Bacterial number in the larvae and rearing water significantly increased during the culture period up to day 18 but dropped significant at day 21. Pseudomonas species were detected from yolk-sac larvae (day 1) as the dominant bacteria, similarly to the normal flora in the rearing water. However, intestinal bacteria were predominated with Vibrio species when the yolk-sac was absorbed on day 3. Larval rearing water, water source, and larval food contained predominantly Pseudomonas species.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial isolation, identification and storage 

      L Ruangpan & EA Tendencia - In Laboratory manual of standardized methods for antimicrobial sensitivity tests for bacteria isolated from aquatic animals and environment, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Bacterial isolation, purification and identification are the first steps to bacteriological studies. Isolation is done to obtain pure bacterial cultures. Bacteria are usually isolated from fish kidney and spleen; and from the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organ and muscles of shrimp. These tissues are monitor organs that usually harbor the disease-causing bacteria during infection.
    • Book chapter

      Bacterial loads in hatcheries and virulence of Vibrio spp. to larvae of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon 

      JL Torres - In T Bagarinao (Ed.), Research Output of the Fisheries Sector Program, 2007 - Bureau of Agricultural Research, Department of Agriculture
      Shrimp hatcheries are high-density systems and are prone to diseases. A small-scale and a large-scale hatchery for the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in Iloilo, Philippines were monitored over two months for water quality and shrimp survival. Water quality (water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and specific gravity) was not significantly different between the two hatcheries. However, the small hatchery seemed to favor survival of eggs to early postlarval stages, whereas the large hatchery favored the survival of late postlarvae. The normal microflora and bacterial loads of tiger shrimp eggs, larvae, postlarvae, and rearing water were determined to identify the dominant bacteria and potential pathogens. Shrimp eggs harbored the lowest heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts increased from the nauplii to the mysis stages, decreased during the mysis stage, and then gradually increased in the older larvae. Bacterial loads in the rearing water reflected those in raw sea water and reservoir-aged sea water. Vibrio, Pseudomonas, and Aeromonas were not detected in eggs but were found in postlarvae. Ubiquitous in sea water, these bacteria increased with the build-up of organic matter. The bacterial load in the water adversely affected larval survival. Forty bacterial strains were isolated from tiger shrimp eggs, larvae, postlarvae, from the feeds, and from the rearing water. These were tested for biochemical characteristics and segregated into eight groups or genera. Six genera were found in the mysis and five genera in the postlarvae. The Vibrio species were dominant. Only Escherichia spp. were present in feeds, whereas five genera were present in the rearing water. Only Vibrio and Pseudomonas were present in both larvae and water. Moraxella, Aeromonas, and Klebsiella were found in larvae but not in rearing water. Micrococcus and coryneforms were found only in rearing water. Four Vibrio isolates were tested for virulence against shrimp postlarvae at inoculation densities of 102 and 107 cfu/ml. The four Vibrio species caused mortality of postlarvae, and more at the higher inoculation density. The most virulent was Vibrio anguillarum—30% of postlarvae died after 24 h exposure to a bacterial density of 102 cfu/ml, and all larvae died after 48 h at 107 cfu/ml. Shrimp hatcheries must have protocols for hygiene and sanitation and for disease prevention and control.
    • Article

      Bacterial microbiota of eggs from cage-reared and tank-reared grouper, Epinephelus coioides 

      EA Tendencia - Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 2004 - European Association of Fish Pathologists
      At SEAFDEC AQD, opaque spawned grouper eggs are observed during collection in cage-reared brood stock; while opaque and multi-colored eggs are often observed in tank-reared fishes. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of these opaque and multicolored eggs and at the same time to compare the bacterial microbiota of eggs from brood stock reared in cages, to those from fish reared in concrete tanks. Grouper eggs from brood stocks reared in cages and tanks were processed for bacterial count and identification. Results showed that total bacterial count (on MA) and presumptive Vibrio count (on TCBS) of eggs from brood stock reared in concrete tanks were lower than those from cage-reared fishes. Aeromonads (for tank-reared) and Pseudomonads (for cage-reared) were the dominant bacteria in the good eggs; while Vibrios were dominant in the bad eggs for both egg sources. Total bacterial count of the egg-incubating medium from the brood stock tanks (104 cfu/ml) was lower than the total bacterial count of water from the cages (107 cfu/ml). Presumptive Vibrio counts of water from the tanks (102 cfu/ml) were lower than those from the cages (106 cfu/ml). The Aeromonads dominated the water from the tanks; while Vibrios dominated those from the cages. Good eggs that did not hatch, turned yellow after 3 days, and pink after 5 days.