Now showing items 1139-1158 of 3272

    • magazineArticle

      Facing the challenges in aquaculture through biotechnology 

      FG Ayson - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Oral presentation

      Factors affecting maturation and spawning of Penaeus esculentus in the laboratory. 

      PJ Crocos - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Adult tiger prawns Penaeus esculentus were held in laboratory tanks under varying conditions of tank size, density, temperature and photoperiod for assessment of ovarian maturation and spawning. Both eyestalk ablated and intact females were studied. Maturation and spawning of intact females was favored by conditions of warm temperature (26°C) and long days (14.5 hr), whereas ovary maturation did not occur at lower temperature (20°C) and short days (12 hr). Tank size was a critical factor with intact females as maturation and spawning required a large tank (4 m2). Spawning did not occur in small tanks (1 m2) despite ideal temperature and photoperiod conditions. Unilaterally ablated females matured and spawned under both short day-cold temperature conditions and in small tanks, but the success rate was greater under long day-warm temperature conditions in large tanks. Intact females required 40-60 days before onset of ovary maturation, whereas ablated females showed maturation to ovary stage III approximately 20 days after ablation. Mating success was severely limited under small tank conditions but occurred normally in the large tanks.
    • magazineArticle

      Family farms in Vietnam 

      ET Aldon - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1997 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      FAO policies and initiatives promoting responsible and efficient use of feed ingredients from marine animal origin 

      W Miao, M Hasan & S Funge-Smith - In MR Catacutan, RM Coloso & BO Acosta (Eds.), Development and Use of Alternative Dietary Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation … Ingredients or Fish Meal Substitutes in Aquaculture Feed Formulation, 9-11 December 2014, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      After rapid development for three decades, aquaculture has become the most important source of food fish in Asia, which currently supplies about 55 per cent of food fish for the people. The rapid growth of aquaculture production has been largely the result of intensification of aquaculture, which heavily relies on artificial feeding. The development of shrimp and high value marine and inland finfish culture has greatly increased the demand for feed ingredients from animal sources, particularly fish meal and fish oil and low value fish as direct feed. Due to various factors, the production of fish meal from whole fish has, overall, declined gradually since 2005 despite some fluctuations. This decrease has been only partly offset by a growing share of fish meal production obtained from fishery by-products. In contrast, the overall demand for fish meal continued to grow, pushing prices to historic high at US$1,919 per mt in January 2013, with an increase of 206 percent between January 2005 and January 2013. The soaring price of fish meal and fish oil has significantly affected the economic return from farm production that relies on the feed with high content of fish meal and fish oil or direct use of low value fish as feed. Furthermore, the increasing use of fish meal and fish oil from whole fish that can be direct source of animal food for people has raised major public concerns.

      Due to the population and economic growth, it is projected that in 2030 the Asia-Pacific region will need to increase fish production by 30 million mt, mainly through aquaculture. With the on-going process of aquaculture intensification and potential increase of high value commodities that require high protein in feed, it is anticipated that demand of Asian aquaculture for feed ingredients, particularly the protein source, will continue to increase. With the stagnant capture fish production and potentially more production to be directed for direct consumption by people, there will be a gap between the demand for feed ingredients and the supply of traditional sources such as fish meal, fish oil and fresh/frozen low value fish. How effectively the gap can be filled might determine the future of the aquaculture industry and whether the increasing demand of people for fish can be met effectively. Therefore, responsible and effective use of feed ingredients from animal sources of marine origin is the key to achieve sustainable growth of aquaculture for food security and nutrition, livelihood development and economic growth in the region.

      This paper provides a global and regional picture of use of marine origin animal feed and feed ingredients in aquaculture. It also briefly discussed major issues on the use of marine origin animal feed and feed ingredients in aquaculture. It briefly introduced the FAO policy and its global and regional initiatives that promote responsible and efficient use of feed ingredients from marine animal origin.
    • magazineArticle

      Farm-made aquafeeds 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Farm-made feeds: preparation, management, problems, and recommendations 

      F Piedad-Pascual - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Making feeds exclusively for certain farming activities is quite common in the tropics particularly in the farming of fishes that feed low in the food chain. Feed preparation will depend on several factors such as availability of feed ingredients, capital, labor, type of feed, size of farm, etc. Management procedures will also depend on factors such as frequency of feeding, capital, labor force, farming system, and availability of electricity in the area. Some problems in the use of farm-made feeds are the limited knowledge of pond dynamics, interaction between supplementary feeds and natural food organisms, quantification of the contribution of natural food to the nutrition of the fish, and quality of feed ingredients. Farm-made feed formulations, processing, and feeding management as well as future research and training approaches with reference to the needs of small-scale fish farmers as recommended by FAO are discussed.
    • Article

      A farmer-oriented Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., breed improvement in the Philippines 

      ZU Basiao, AL Arago & RW Doyle - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing
      Opportunities for developing small-scale tilapia industry in the Philippines is hampered by the shortage of good-quality seeds and broodstock. Most small-scale farmers are dependent on distribution centres for improved tilapia seeds that are expensive and not sufficient to meet market demands. An option would be for farmers to develop their own tilapia breeds using simple procedures within their technical and financial resources. This option will also help sustain the diversity of locally adapted domestic stocks of tilapia. The Philippine tilapia production of ~ 122 316 MT can be increased by ensuring a stable supply of quality seeds and transferring suitable technology to fish farmers. The study was carried out in a tilapia hatchery/nursery pond in the Philippines to explore the potential for a farmer-based research on tilapia breed improvement using relatively simple artificial selection procedures.

      One generation of size-specific mass selection based on the early culling of large fry (collimation procedure) was applied on a Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus L., in net cages set in a small earthen pond. Two episodes of directional selection were performed after initial removal of large fry at 21 days. Selection of parents and progeny testing were conducted in hapa and B-net cages set in earthen ponds. The selection resulted in a significant response of 8% for standard length and 29% for weight relative to the control. The crude estimates of realized heritability is ~ 16% for standard length and ~26% for weight comparable with similar studies conducted by other workers.
    • magazineArticle

      Farming guidelines 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Farming high-health shrimps 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Farming of all-male java tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) at two stocking densities in cages in a brackishwater pond 

      SM Aban - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A study was conducted to determine the growth, survival, and yield of allmale Oreochromis mossambicus in cages at two stocking densities: 50 fish/m2 (Treatment I) and 100 fish/m2 (Treatment II) in a brackishwater pond. The artificial diet contained 70% fine rice bran and 30% Peruvian fish meal. The 25% crude protein diet was fed in pellet form at 5% of fish biomass per day for the first two months and in mashed, moist form at 3% of fish biomass per day for the last month of culture. Results showed that fish in Treatment I gave higher mean weight gain (59.75 g) than in Treatment II (45.10 g). Similarly, higher daily growth rate was observed in Treatment I (0.56g/day) than in Treatment II (0.42 g/day). Feed conversion ratios of 2.42 and 2.85 were obtained for Treatment I and Treatment II, respectively. Fish in treatment I had higher percent survival (87.3%) than those in Treatment II(72.0%). Moreover, higher net income per cage was obtained in Treatment I than in Treatment II. Statistical analysis, however, showed no significant differences between the two treatments.
    • Brochure

      The farming of kappaphycus 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Introduces the red seaweed Kappaphycus with notes on the type culture systems, the environmental factors required, initial investment needed, and crop management.
    • Conference paper

      Farming of mussels and oysters 

      HS Sitoy - In JV Juario & LV Benitez (Eds.), Seminar on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1988 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This paper reviews the works on mussel and oyster culture conducted from 1975 to 1985 by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department at Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Innovative techniques developed in increasing collection of natural seeds and in improving farming techniques are presented. Results of the work on artificial seed production, bacterial depuration, uptake and elimination of heavy metals by green mussel, investigations on red tides, and microbiology of spoilage are discussed.
    • Book

      Farming of prawns and shrimps 

      FD Apud, PL Torres Jr. & JH Primavera - 1983 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 5
      The manual provides information on the culture of shrimps and prawns. Considerations regarding farm sites, pond specifications, pond ecosystems and differences between prawn and milkfish culture are examined. Seed supply, farm management practices and economic aspects are detailed.
    • Book

      The farming of the seaweed Kappaphycus 

      AQ Hurtado & RF Agbayani - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 32
      A 24-page manual that introduces the carrageenan-producing seaweed Kappaphycus whose culture has spread from Jolo in Mindanao to at least 14 sites in the Visayas and Luzon. Four culture methods are presented: fixed off-bottom, raft long-line (single or multiple), hanging long line, and polyculture of seaweeds with carnivorous fishes.
    • Book

      Farming of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina 

      VC Encena II & NC Bayona - 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 49
      This manual was written to provide abalone growers a practical guide on how to culture abalone based on the studies and trials conducted by SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
    • magazineArticle

      Farming seaweeds at SEAFDEC/AQD 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The article presents the practices that have been developed or documented by SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for farming seaweeds. These practices are: the cage culture of Kappaphycus, and the ‘rice planting’ method for cultivating Gracilaria. The seaweed gathering practices in coastal communities in western Visayas is also presented.
    • magazineArticle

      Farming systems 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1993 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Farming techniques for seaweeds 

      M Castaños & R Buendia - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.
    • magazineArticle

      Farming the giant clam 

      MB Surtida & RY Buendia - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Farming the seaweed Kappaphycus 

      A Hurtado - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2003 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Seaweed farming is the top foreign exchange earner for the Philippines. Kappaphycus constitutes 80% of the Philippine seaweed export. It is sold in both fresh and dried forms; although dried seaweed has a greater demand, fresh seaweed is highly prices in restaurants. The 3 main seaweed products marketed are agar, alginate and carrageenan. A brief outline is given of farming operations and investment costs and returns.