Now showing items 1991-2010 of 3211

    • Conference paper

      National seaweed program 

      MSR Ferrer - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      The natural life history of milkfish 

      T Bagarinao - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Following brief descriptions of the various phases in the natural life history of the milkfish (Chanos chanos), namely adults, eggs and embryos, larvae, fry and metamorphosis, juveniles and sub-adults, a summary is provided of the life history, providing also a schematic diagram.
    • Conference paper

      Natural spawning of four Epinephelus species in the laboratory 

      MNR Alava, MLL Dolar & JA Luchavez - In CL Marte, GF Quinitio & AC Emata (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Breeding and Seed Production of Cultured Finfishes in the Philippines, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 4-5 May 1993, 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Natural spawnings of four Epinephelus species reared in the laboratory were observed from 1987 to 1992. These species are: E. summana, E. caeruleopunctatus, E. macrospilus and E. fuscoguttatus. Spawning was serial, usually occurring at night, on or 1-6 days after the new moon. Egg characteristics of these four species were compared. Fertilized egg and early larval development of E. summana and E. fuscoguttatus are discussed.
    • Article

      Natural spawning, egg and fry production of milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), broodstock reared in concrete tanks 

      AC Emata & CL Marte - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1994 - Blackwell Publishing
      Gonadal maturation, rematuration, and spawning of nine- (1982 stock) and ten-year-old (1981 stock) milkfish reared in 150 and 200 m3 concrete tanks were observed in 1990 and 1991. From 23 September to 9 November 1990, the 1981 stock spawned 15 times with an average daily collection of 61,000 ± 21,000 eggs. From 4 larval rearing trials, the mean overall survival rate (from eggs to 21 -day-old fry) was 9.68 ± 4.3%. From 25 Aril to 31 October 1991, the stock spawned a totaf of 108 times. Mean daily egg collection increasef to 305,000 ± 32,000. Successful rearing trials conducted during the latter part of the spawning season had a mean overall survival rate of 17 ± 3% (n = 17) indicating that mass fry production techniques can be improved. Spawning of milkfish broodstock in concrete tanks provides an alternative to other existing methods of seed production.
    • magazineArticle

      Nature matters: The AQD museum and biodiversity garden, and the environment action group 

      T Bagarinao - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1997 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      Nature parks for environment education and biodiversity in the Philippines 

      T Bagarinao - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1997 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos for biodiversity conservation and environment education: the Philippines 

      T Bagarinao - AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 1998 - Springer Verlag
      Public consciousness about biodiversity and the environment, and their importance for sustainable development is not widespread in the Philippines. This article advocates nonformal environment education through nature recreation as a means toward 'greening, the mind and the spirit of the citizens. Information is provided about biodiversity, and the status and potential of nature parks, museums, gardens, and zoos in the country. Many of the 116 national parks and protected areas have been exploited for products and energy, and only some provide for recreation-cum-education. The Philippines has no national botanical garden, zoo, or aquarium, and the National Museum is not the proud institution that it should be. Some universities have small museums, botanical gardens, and other biodiversity exhibits for instruction and research, but these and the few zoos and wildlife centers are poorly funded or managed.
    • Article

      Nature's subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming 

      RL Naylor, RJ Goldburg, H Mooney, M Beveridge, J Clay, C Folke, N Kautsky, J Lubchenco, J Primavera & M Williams - Science, 1998 - American Association for the Advancement of Science
      Although many fisheries stocks have declined precipitously throughout the world, fish farming--and especially shrimp and salmon farming--has boomed. The increasingly large scale of these enterprises is now having unforeseen ecological consequences on ocean resources through habitat destruction, effluent discharge, exotic species introductions, and heightened fish catch for feed use. Ending unsustainable production practices will require reorienting regulatory policies and fiscal incentives in shrimp- and salmon-producing counties, and enhancing restrictions on environmentally unsound practices.
    • magazineArticle

      Nereistoxin 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The article discusses Nereistoxin, a toxin isolated from marine annelids, its pharmacological and agricultural applications are discussed in the article.
    • Conference paper

      Net cage culture of Lates calcarifer Bloch and other marine animals in Thailand 

      Y Dhebtaranon, S Maneewongsa & S Wongsomnuk - In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Pen Cage Culture of Fish, 11-22 February 1979, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 1979 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre
      Feeding experiments on sea bass, Lates calcaifer , have been carried out in nylon net cages in Songkhla, since 1971, to obtain information on: (1) growth rates; (2) survival rates; (3) food conversion rates; (4) environmental conditions that affect the fish. Data from these experiments, some of which are briefly reproduced in this paper, prove that sea bass can be successfully cultured in net cage. Among other marine invertebrates, the cuttle fish, Sepia sp., showed the best potential for culture in net cage.
    • Book

      Net cage culture of tilapia in dams and small farm reservoirs 

      DD Baliao, MA de los Santos, NM Franco & NRS Jamon - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 30
      The manual describes the net cage of tilapia in dams and small farm reservoirs, which has been found to be a low-cost yet high-income earning farm activity and offers an excellent option as an alternative livelihood for poor inland fisherfolks. The following aspects are covered: 1) Characteristics of a suitable site; 2) Design of the net cages - the floating cage, the stationary/fixed cage; 3) Stocking the net cages - source of juveniles, stocking rate, stocking time, acclimation; 4) Management of the cages - feeds and feeding, monitoring activities; 5) Harvesting - partial harvest, total harvest; and, 6) Profitability analysis.
    • Article

      Net mesh size affects production of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii cultured in lake-based cages 

      MLA Cuvin-Aralar, AG Lazartigue & EV Aralar - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2013 - Wiley
      Cage culture of freshwater prawns in open waters is prone to the entry of predators and competitors that particularly hamper production. This study was conducted to determine how smaller net mesh sizes to reduce entry of unwanted species inside the cages affects the production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in lake-based cages. Juvenile prawns were stocked in cages (7 × 7 × 1.5 m) of two net mesh sizes at 10 individuals m-2 and cultured for 10 months in a shallow eutrophic lake in the Philippines. The two net mesh sizes were either 5 mm-mesh B-nets or and 1 mm-mesh Hapa nets. Each treatment had four replicates each and was fed based on biomass with commercially formulated feed. Monitoring of various production parameters was done during the two phases of culture: batch phase on days 63 and 127 and the selective harvest phase on days 187, 219, 253, 281 and 313, when the experiment was terminated. For the first 127 days of culture, the weight, percent weight increase, daily growth rate (DGR), specific growth rate (SGR), yield and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly better in prawns reared in the Hapa compared to the B-nets. During the selective harvest phase the blue claw, orange claw and berried females were selectively harvested and the remaining prawns returned to the cages. After changes in stocking density through culling, ancova was used to compare the effect of mesh size with the total number of prawns returned to the cages as a covariate. Yield was significantly higher in the Hapa nets. Weight, DGR, SGR and FCR were also consistently higher in the Hapa nets, although not always significantly different. The overall better performance of prawns reared in the Hapa net cages was due to: (i) the reduction in the entry of predator and competitor species in the finer-meshed Hapa compared to the larger mesh B-net, (ii) more natural food trapped inside the Hapa cages, and (iii) a higher number of selectively harvested prawns, which decreased stocking density in the cages and improved growth. Use of small mesh size nets is recommended in the cage culture of M. rosenbergii in inland natural water bodies.
    • magazineArticle

      Netcage culture in SEA 

      ET Aldon - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Brochure

      Netcage culture of tilapia in small freshwater reservoirs 

      Anon. - 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Includes details on site and net cage construction and tilapia farm management.
    • Article

      Netcage rearing of the Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in brackishwater pond: The technical and economic efficiency of using high protein diets in fingerling production 

      JA Madrones-Ladja & MR Catacutan - The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2012 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      Intensification in the grow-out culture of high-value fish requires a large quantity of quality fingerlings. Fingerling production is a component of fish farming that comprises nursery and grow-out culture, and may be a commercial enterprise option for fish farmers with limited pond area. The nursery rearing of the Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) was conducted in netcages inside a brackishwater pond. The fish were fed with two isocaloric, high-protein diets formulated at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC/AQD) and a control treatment: diets A (40.40% crude protein, CP) and B (46.17% CP), and trashfish (TF) as control. Hatchery-bred seabass early juveniles of two size groups (S1, 4.0 ± 0.2 g; S2, 2.40 ± 0.03 g) were stocked at 75–100 fish per m3 and given diets A or B at 6–10% of average body weight (ABW) d-1, or TF at apparent satiation. Seabass given the formulated diets attained the desired size (≥ 20–40 g) after 45 d but not the fish fed with trashfish. Size and treatments showed significant effects on final ABW, although no significant interaction between these factors was shown to affect body weight. As expected, S1 fish attained a significantly higher ABW (30.7 ± 18 g) compared with S2 fish (20.7 ± 11 g) regardless of diet treatment. Seabass fed with trashfish exhibited significantly lower final ABW (6.6 ±1.6 g) than those fed Diet A (33.4 ± 6.5 g) or Diet B (37.1 ± 9.4 g). Fish size did not have any significant effect on specific growth rate (SGR), but diet treatments did. SGR was significantly better when either Diet A (5.2 ± 0.30) or B (5.4 ± 0.20) was used compared with the SGR of seabass fed with trashfish (1.7 ± 0.5). Although size and treatment did not show significant interaction on fish survival, the use of bigger seabass resulted in higher survival (89 ± 11%) compared with smaller seabass (80 ± 11%). Regardless of size, similar survival was attained in seabass fed Diet A (89 ± 6%) or B (95 ± 5%), significantly higher than that in seabass given trashfish (72 ± 6%). An interaction between size at stocking and diet treatment significantly affected protein efficiency ratio (PER). When S1 fish was used, diets A and B gave similar PER. However, when S2 fish was used, diet A gave significantly higher PER (2.49 ± 0.02) among the treatments (P < 0.05). Regardless of size, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in the mean production cost, revenue and income among the three diet treatments. Moreover, post hoc analysis using Tukey’s HSD test further showed that use of diet B resulted in significantly higher revenue (PhP25,132.80) and income (PhP12,597.47) compared with the two other treatments. Trashfish treatment gave the least revenue (PhP 9,525.60) and negative income (- PhP 1,798.40). Production cost was not significantly different between diets A and B. Hence, diet B is the most economically viable and productive diet treatment. The low break-even price of fingerlings obtained for diet B showed that selling price can still be reduced to lower production cost in grow-out farming.
    • Oral presentation

      A new approach in intensive nursery rearing of penaeids. 

      Aquacop - In Y Taki, JH Primavera & JA Llobrera (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1985 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The need for a nursery phase between the hatchery and the growing pond to avoid mortalities of young postlarvae, and provide a better assessment of stocked animals is general in crustacean aquaculture.

      The Centre Oceanologique du Pacifique recently developed a new culture technique using strong aeration, no water exchange and no external filter or artificial substrates. The technique relies on the development of a phytoplankton and bacterial medium with both nutritive and purifying qualities. Early postlarvae (PL3) are grown for a month or less up to 0.1 g mean weight, in 10 to 100 m3 tanks, at densities of 1 to 10 individuals/ℓ. The mean daily growth rates are around 20% for Penaeus indicus, P. stylirostris and P. vannamei and only 12-15% for P. monodon. For all species tested, density has little or no influence on growth. The final survival rates are generally high.
    • Conference paper

      New developments in marine prawn disease research in south east Asia. 

      MCL Baticados - In SH Cheah & S Thalathiah (Eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture. Proceedings of a Seminar Organized by the Malaysian Fisheries Society and the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, 17 August 1989, Kuala Lumpur, 1992 - Malaysian Fisheries Society. Occasional Publication No. 6
      Researches on marine shrimp diseases for the past three years centered primarily on the diagnosis and control of viral and bacterial infections as well as nutritional, toxic and environmental diseases. Diagnostic techniques developed or adopted recently for prawn viruses include the ELISA technique for detecting baculoviruses, acridine orange fluorescence, eosin flourescence and in vitro culture of the Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) on lymphoid organ-derived monolayer culture. Studies have been conducted on the identification, pathogenicity and chemical control of bacteria causing luminous vibriosis and shell disease. Investigations on non-infections diseases such as the chronic soft-shell syndrome, blue shrimp disease and aflatoxicosis elucidated the factors responsible for the development of these diseases. Current research on marine shrimp diseases, other related problems and recommendations are discussed.
    • Article

      A new device for recording the feeding activity of milkfish 

      G Kawamura & AR Castillo Jr. - Nippon Suisan Gakkai Shi. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 1981 - The Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries
      Knowledge on the feeding activity is basic and very important for rearing fish. The information on the feeding activity rhythm of the animal suggests the proper time to feed it. Many devices have been designed to record the feeding activities of aquatic animals. Some are mechanical devices which are difficult to maintain in good conditions for a long time. None of the present devices can be applied to milk-fish because of its characteristic manner of taking food. In this paper, a new electrical device for recording the feeding activity of milkfish is reported.
    • magazineArticle

      New duck culture system for integrated farming 

      TM Ayyappan - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • magazineArticle

      New food processing equipment 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The article presents new food processing equipment for coating and frying. These are predusters, liquid enrobers and applicators for large-particle crumbs.