Now showing items 2196-2215 of 3272

    • Book

      Pag-aalaga ng tilapya 

      RV Eguia & MRR Eguia - 2007 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 22
      The manual discusses tilapia culture methods in concrete tanks, netcages, and fishponds. It details the species of tilapia cultured in the Philippines, which include Oreochromis nilotucus, O.mossambicus, O.aureus. It covers the following: site selection; construction of netcages and its modules; fishpond construction and pond preparation; criteria for fry selection; stocking; netcage and pond management including water quality management; and harvest. The manual also lists the agencies involved in tilapia research and development in the Philippines; defines some technical terms in a glossary, and lists some useful references.
    • Book

      Pagpapaanak ng tilapya 

      RV Eguia & MRR Eguia - 2007 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 23
      This 52-page revised edition of the 1996 manual, discusses the spawning of tilapia in concrete tank hatcheries, hapa hatcheries in ponds and lakes and the hatchery operations of tilapia.
    • Book

      Pagpapaanak o pagpaparami ng tilapya 

      RV Eguia, MRR Eguia & ZU Basiao - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 23
      The manual discusses spawning tilapia (Oreochromis spp) in concrete tank hatcheries, hapa hatcheries in ponds and in lakes in the Philippines. Also included in the manual are a list of agencies involved in tilapia research, a glossary of technical terms, and useful references.
    • Book

      Pagpapalaki ng tilapya 

      RV Eguia, MRR Eguia & ZU Basiao - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 22
      The manual discusses tilapia culture methods in concrete tanks, netcages, and fishponds. It details the species of tilapia cultured in the Philippines, which include Oreochromis nilotucus, O. mossambicus, O. aureus. It covers the following: site selection; construction of netcages and its modules; fishpond construction and pond preparation; criteria for fry selection; stocking; netcage and pond management including water quality management; and harvest.

      The manual also lists the agencies involved in tilapia research and development in the Philippines; defines some technical terms in a glossary, and lists some useful references.
    • Conference paper

      Paradigm shifts in mangrove rehabilitation in Southeast Asia: Focus on the Philippines 

      JH Primavera, AMT Guzman, JD Coching, RJA Loma, D Curnick & HJ Koldewey - In HG Palis, SA Pasicolan & CI Villamor (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st ASEAN Congress on Mangrove Research and Development, 3-7 December 2012, Manila, Philippines, 2014 - Department of Environment and Natural Resources - Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (DENR-ERDB)
      Mangrove rehabilitation has a long history in the Philippines dating back to the 1930s. The standard practice is the planting of bakhaw Rhizophora propagules by paid community members (or volunteers) in seafront sites selected during spring low tides. In 2009, the Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Project (CMRP) of the Zoological Society of London was established to: (a) rehabilitate abandoned government-leased fi shponds into healthy mangroves; (b) increase coastal protection, food resources, and livelihood income through sustainable management of mangroves; and (c) re-establish the legally mandated mangrove ‘greenbelt’ along the coast.

      Over four years, the CMRP has planted the following in various partner sites in Panay and Guimaras: (a) 58,000 seeds or wildings bagged in nurseries by 3,000 participants, and (b) 99,000 seedlings/wildings outplanted by 4,000 planters in ~20 ha of greenbelts and abandoned ponds. The species are mainly bungalon/piapi Avicennia marina, pagatpat Sonneratia alba, and to a lesser extent, bakhaw Rhizophora. The planters include high school/college students and teachers, members of people’s organizations, barangay and municipal government employees, BFAR and DENR staff , and civil society organizations. The extensive CMRP trials have yielded signifi cant learnings, many of them paradigm shifts from present protocols, as included in the 20 Golden Rules of Mangrove Rehabilitation. A manual that documents these learnings with concrete examples based on CMRP monitoring of fi xed quadrats and other standardized protocols, is currently in press. Some of these protocols are the following: (a) planting site: shift from seafront sites to abandoned ponds (whenever possible); (b) time of site selection: during (low tide of) Neap Tide rather than Spring Tide; (c) species selection for seafront sites: the ecologically correct bungalon/piapi and pagatpat, rather than the easy-to-plant but unsuitable bakhaw; (d) sources of planting materials: use of available wildings is harvesting nature’s excess (equivalent to withdrawing from ‘seedling banks’), which also saves time; (e) labor: “No Pay” planting is based on the premise that labor contributed by the community provides the basis for ownership, thereby obligating them to nurture the plants to maturity and validating their role as de facto managers of mangrove resources.

      Similar mangrove initiatives have been observed elsewhere in Southeast Asia, as follows: (a) barriers/breakwater in MaIaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand; (b) use of wildings in Malaysia; and (c) mangrove ecoparks/reserves in Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Brunei.
    • Article

      Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa in Mati, Davao Oriental, Philippines 

      RQ Gacutan, MY Tabbu, EJ Aujero & F Icatlo Jr. - Marine Biology, 1985 - Springer Verlag
      On 26 August 1983, a single case of paralytic shellfish-poisoning (PSP) was reported in Davao City, Philippines. The poisoning was traced to ingestion of the green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, gathered from Balete Bay, Mati, Davao Oriental. Phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses on 12 October 1983 (47 d later), revealed the presence of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa, a cause of a series of red tides in the early and middle 1970's in Papua New Guinea, Sabah, and Brunei, and more recently, in Palau, and Western Samar and Leyte, Philippines. The dinoflagellate was not dominant; in fact the enumeration showed greater numbers of Ceratium sp., another dinoflagellate. Quantification of the neurotoxin by the standard mouse assay revealed a very high potency. Mussels collected from a new raft (transplanted in May 1983) had a toxicity of 7 960 mouse units (MU) per 100 g-1 meat. Those from an old raft (transplanted in May 1982) had a toxicity of 9 620 MU per 100 g-1 meat.
    • Article

      Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin accumulation in shellfishes collected from various habitats in Murcielagos Bay, Philippines during harmful algal blooms occurrence 

      RJA Narceda, UM Montojo, MRR Eguia & GL Sia Su - Advances in Environmental Biology, 2014 - American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information (AENSI)
      This study aims to determine whether the habitat of bivalves plays an influence in the occurrence of tropical shellfish toxicity during toxic red tide bloom occurrences in Murcielagos Bay, Misamis Occidental, Philippines. Various shellfish species were collected during the occurrence of red tide blooms. The type of habitat and the shellfish toxicities were investigated. Likewise, the phytoplankton profile in the seawater column was assessed. Results of our study revealed that the occurrence of shellfish toxicities was habitat specific in spite of the fact that the causative organism Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum was present in low concentrations in the sampling sites. Shellfish collected from sea grass, coralline area, and seafloor habitats were notably susceptible against the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin contamination compared to those samples obtained from soil substrate. Continuous monitoring of areas that are affected with shellfish toxicity must be conducted so as to safeguard the general public’s welfare dependent on these resources.
    • Book chapter

      Parameters in site selection and monitoring 

      SMS Santander - In Training Handbook on Rural Aquaculture, 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Before starting an aquaculture venture, it is necessary to first select an appropriate project site. Doing this ensures that money invested in the project is not later wasted because the site does not meet the requirements of the culture organism. It also makes sure that the environment is not compromised and will be able to sustain the aquaculture activities.

      Two major parameters are considered during site selection. These are the 1) physico-chemical; and 2) environmental parameters. Physico-chemical parameters affect the health of the culture organisms while the environmental parameters will give insights on the sustainability of the aquaculture venture. However, the task does not end with site selection. Monitoring of the aquatic environments is also essential to note any changes in the environment that may affect the aquaculture project and the environment itself.
    • Article

      Parasites from the green mussel (Perna viridis Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) of Ivisan, Capiz, Philippines 

      G Erazo-Pagador - Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2018 - College of Agriculture and Food Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      This study reports the parasites found in green mussel (Perna viridis L.) from Ivisan, Capiz, Philippines. Samples were collected monthly from January to December 2009. A total of 360 samples were collected, fixed in 10% formalin in seawater solution, and processed by standard histological techniques that included staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E). The water temperature ranged from 24 to 30°C and salinity from 18 to 23 ppt. Microscopic analysis showed that the most prevalent parasites were Nematopsis sp. occurring mostly in connective tissues (46%), metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. in the mantle (12%), and a turbellarian (4%) and metacercariae in the mantle (4%). Based on these findings, these parasites may not yet be a problem to mussel farming as they were low and caused no apparent damage to the host.
    • Article

      Parasites of window-pane oyster (Placuna placenta Linnaeus, 1758) from Trapiche, Oton in west central Philippines 

      G Erazo-Pagador - The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2015 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      Parasitology of edible and commercially valuable window-pane oysters (Placuna placenta L.) using gross macroscopic examination and histology was conducted. To screen for the presence of parasites, wild oysters were collected monthly from January 2008 to December 2008 from Trapiche, Oton in west central Philippines. Thirty live adult oysters with shell length (SL) of 52-89 mm were hand-picked monthly. Gross observation showed the presence of pea crabs (Pinnotheres sp.) in the mantle cavity of the oysters. The overall prevalence and intensity of P. placenta with pea crabs were 4.44% and 1, respectively. Histological examination revealed the occurrence of Tylocephalum sp. (prevalence and intensity of the parasites were 1.66 % and 0.5, respectively) in connective tissues around the digestive gland. Tylocephalum sp. was found surrounded by hemocytic infiltration. Ciliates (Ancistroma sp.) were also observed in the gills with overall prevalence of 38.83% and intensity of 7.51. Larval stages of trematodes of Bucephalus sp. (prevalence, 18.83%; intensity of 1.5) were found in the connective tissues of the female gonad. The study presents a documentation of parasites of P. placenta in the Philippines.
    • Conference paper

      Parasitic caligid copepods of farmed marine fishes in the Philippines 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, G Erazo-Pagador, A Yamamoto & K Nagasawa - In MG Bondad-Reantaso, JB Jones, F Corsin & A Takashi (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Taipei, Taiwan 20-26 June 2008, 2011 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Recently, heavy infestation of caligid copepods occurred among farmed rabbitfish Siganus guttatus, pompano Trachinotus blochii and sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines. In S. guttatus broodstock, Caligus epidemicus, Pseudocaligus uniartus and Lepeophtheirus sigani concurrently caused severe erosion and hemorrhaging of the body surface, fins and eyes of affected fish occurring at 95.78%, 1.52% and 0.70% of the parasite load, respectively, and with associated mortality of the host fish. In marketable-sized T. blochii, L. spinifer caused body lesions that considerably reduced the market value of harvested fish. In L. calcarifer juveniles, infestation with C. epidemicus resulted to loss of appetite, lethargy and stunted growth of affected fish. Because of its pathogenicity, low host specificity and tolerance to brackish water, C. epidemicus poses the highest threat to farmed marine fish in the Philippines. Lates calcarifer and T. blochii are new host records for C. epidemicus and L. spinifer, respectively. This is also the first record of L. spinifer in the Philippines.
    • Conference paper

      Parasitic crustaceans in fishes from some Philippine Lakes. 

      NC Lopez - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
      Parasitic crustaceans are among the most harmful parasites of fishes. Certain species cause disease outbreaks and mortalities in aquaculture, facilities, and sometimes in natural systems, resulting in serious economic losses. Edible fishes from some Philippine lakes also show infestation by parasitic crustaceans. The branchiuran, Argulus indicus Weber, and the copepod, Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, were recovered from the skin and base of the dorsal fin, respectively, of the mudfish Channa striata from Laguna de Bay. L. cyprinacea was also found on the white goby Glossogobius giurus in Naujan Lake. In La Mesa Reservoir, the gills of wild populations of tilapias Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii, white goby, and silvery theraponid Therapon plumbeus were infected with the copepod, Ergasilus philippinensis Velasquez. An isopod, Alitropus typus Edwards, was recovered from the buccal and gill cavities of several fishes from Lake Taal, namely; the mud gudgeon Ophiocara aporos, cardinal fish Apogon thermalis, silvery theraponid, and cage cultured Oreochromis niloticus. Previous reports and above finding indicate wide host specificity of the parasites. Of these four parasites, only Ergasilus philippinensis has not been reported to cause mass mortality in cultured fishes. Measures should be undertaken to prevent their introduction to other water bodies in which they do not yet occur.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A wide variety of parasitic organisms have been reported as causing significant problems in grouper aquaculture. In the hatchery and nursery stages, parasitic diseases of groupers are caused predominantly by protozoans, particularly the ciliates. When grouper fry are transferred to grow-out facilities, they are subjected to handling and transport stress. These fish often carry a large variety and high intensity of ciliated protozoans, skin and gill monogeneans and caligid copepods.

      This chapter deals with the major parasites of cultured groupers including infections caused by protozoans, monogeneans, didymozoid digeneans, nematodes, caligid copepods, isopods and leeches.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases and pests 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This chapter deals with parasitic animals of significance to aquaculture because of their harmful effects on fish and crustaceans. It also illustrates the life cycle of major parasites and discusses the various methods in diagnosing diseases caused by parasites, including disease prevention and control.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases and pests 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A wide variety of parasites have been identified as causing significant economic losses in fish and shrimp culture. Most of these parasites are difficult to control effectively with a single measure. The control of parasites is dependent on culture systems of the host fish, knowledge of the life cycle of the parasite, and the availability of effective treatment methods.
    • Article

      A parasitological survey of slipper-cupped oysters (Crassostrea iredalei, Faustino, 1932) in the Philippines 

      G Erazo-Pagador - Journal of Shellfish Research, 2010 - National Shellfisheries Association
      This paper describes the first screening in the Philippines of slipper-cupped oysters (Crassostrea iredalei) for the presence of parasites. Slipper-cupped oysters were sampled at 2 sites in Ivisan, Capiz, from September to December 2007. Macroscopical and histological analyses were carried out in oyster tissues. Histological examination showed gregarine protozoan Nematopsis sp. as the most prevalent parasite (71.33% and 65.0%) at 2 sites with a moderate intensity of infection. Tylocephalum sp. cestode was found in the connective tissue around the digestive gland, with a prevalence of 60% and 52.3% in 2 sites, with a moderate intensity of infection. Digenean trematodes had a 37.80% prevalence at site 1 and a 22.45% prevalence at site 2. Ciliates were also observed with a prevalence of 18.75% (site 1) and 13% (site 2). The observed infection of oysters had no apparent effect on oyster production at these sites maybe due to low infestation levels or to the fact that the parasites have no pathological effect.
    • Article

      Partial replacement of Artemia sp. by the brackishwater cladoceran, Diaphanosoma celebensis (Stingelin), in the larval rearing of sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) 

      MR de la Peña, AC Fermin & DP Lojera - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      A feed experiment was conducted to test the brackishwater cladoceran, Diaphanosoma celebensis, as a partial or complete substitute for Artemia in the larval rearing of the sea bass, Lates calcarifer. The cladoceran was fed either alone or in combination with Artemia to 15-day old sea bass larvae (5.6 mm SL, 2.7 mg wet BW) reared at 15 ppt salinity. Groups fed Artemia alone were reared at 15 and 32 ppt salinity levels. After 15 days of rearing, the survival (95-99%), observed mortality (0.8-1.2%) and apparent loss due to cannibalism (0.2-4.1%) did not differ significantly among treatments. The specific growth rates of fish fed only Artemia (18.7-19.1%/day) and combined Artemia+Diaphanosoma (18.7%/day) were significantly higher than that of fish fed only Diaphanosoma (16.3%/day). Diaphanosoma had higher crude protein and crude fat contents than Artemia but the percentage of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 20:5n3 and 22:6n3, was lower than in Artermia. Results indicated the potential of Diaphanosoma as a partial substitute for Artemia in the larval rearing of sea bass at 15 ppt salinity.
    • Article

      Partial replacement of fishmeal by defatted soybean meal in formulated diets for the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775) 

      MR Catacutan & GE Pagador - Aquaculture Research, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effect on growth and feed efficiencies of the mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) when dietary fishmeal is partially replaced by defatted soybean meal (DSM). In the preliminary experiment, snapper (mean weight±SD, 58.22±5.28 g) were fed in triplicate with different dietary amounts of DSM (7.8–42.2%) that were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. After 14 weeks, survival, growth and feed efficiencies, and hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ. Based on these results, a feeding trial was done using a positive control diet that contained 64% fishmeal, while the other four diets had DSM levels of 12%, 24%, 36%, and 48% that replaced fishmeal protein at 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% respectively. All diets were formulated to have about the same protein level (50%), protein to energy ratio (P/E of 25-mg protein kJ−1), and dietary energy (19.8 MJ kg−1). These were fed to triplicate groups of snapper (mean total weight tank−1±SD, 73.19±1.2 g) at 15 fish (average weight, 4.88 g) per 1.5-t tank for 19 weeks. Growth (final average weight and specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, and HSI were not significantly different (P>0.05) while protein efficiency ratios or PERs were similar in treatments with DSM. Among snapper fed DSM, haematocrit value was significantly lower in fish fed 48% DSM and not different with fish fed 36% DSM. Whole-body crude fat of snapper fed 48% DSM was lowest while the crude protein and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were highest. Histopathological analysis showed that lipid vacuoles in livers of snapper were reduced in size as dietary DSM increased. There was slight lipid deposition in the liver of snapper at 36% DSM while at 48% DSM it was excessive and hepatocytes were necrotic. There were no differences in the histology of snapper intestine. Under the experimental condition of this study, DSM can be used in snapper diets at 24% (replacing 25% of fishmeal protein) based on growth, survival and feed efficiencies, and histology of liver and intestine. For a lesser diet cost, an inclusion level higher than 24% DSM is possible with a bioavailable phosphorus supplement.
    • Article

      Partial replacement of soybean meal with fermented copra meal in milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forsskal) diet 

      MJS Apines-Amar, RM Coloso, CJ Jaspe, JM Salvilla, MNG Amar-Murillo & CA Saclauso - Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation and Legislation, 2015 - Bioflux
      Feeding trials were conducted to determine the optimum partial replacement level of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented copra meal (FCM). Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% of the locally produced FCM partially replacing SBM protein by 0, 12, 27, 41, 56, and 71%, respectively and fully replacing copra meal were formulated. The diets were fed to the fish with an initial weight of 2.83±0.14 g for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the best diet was further tested in a preliminary feeding trial in brackishwater grow-out ponds to verify the performance of the formulated diet against a commercial milkfish feed in an outdoor grow-out system. The results of the indoor tank feeding trial indicated that weight gain of the fish was significantly better in the group fed diet 2, with 5% dietary FCM but further increase in the FCM inclusion level up to 20% of the diet did not exhibit statistical differences against the control. Moreover in the preliminary pond feeding trial, growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the fish fed the FCM diet were significantly higher than the commercial control diet. Survival and nutrient composition of the fish carcass were not adversely affected by the treatments. Hence, optimum dietary FCM inclusion level was determined at 5% of the milkfish diet replacing 100% copra meal and 12% SBM protein. However, in terms of economics, up to 20% FCM can be included in the diet replacing 56% SBM protein may be possible with growth comparable to the FCM-less control.
    • Book chapter

      Participants 

      Anon. - 2005 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center