Now showing items 2513-2532 of 3350

    • Book chapter

      The rabbitfishes 

      MN Duray & JV Juario - In CE Nash & AJ Novotny (Eds.), Production of aquatic animals: fishes, 1995 - Elsevier
    • Book

      Raft culture of mussels 

      HS Sitoy, AL Young & MY Tabbu - 1983 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 8
    • Conference paper

      Rapid adaptation to a new environment: is it reversible? 

      H Araki - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Accumulating evidence suggests rapid adaptation of fish populations when they are exposed to artificial hatchery environments. However, little is known if rapidly-adapted populations can readapt to their original, natural environment at the same rate. Here, I review recent studies on salmonid fish that address this issue. They indeed suggest rapid adaptation of hatchery populations, in which reproductive fitness under a natural environment became much lower than that in the wild population after only 1-2 generations of captive breeding. However, the reproductive fitness did not recover after one generation of natural rearing, implying that rapid adaptation to a new environment was not reversible at the same rate. I discuss potential consequences of the irreversible fitness reduction in extensively stocked fish species. Understanding the mechanism behind the irreversible rapid adaptation in fish populations will help us figure out a better, nature-friendly, and hence sustainable means of hatchery operations for human welfare.
    • Article

      Rapid rural appraisal and participatory research in the Philippines 

      WG Gallardo, VC Encena II & NC Bayona - Community Development Journal, 1995 - Oxford University Press
      Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) was conducted in the fishing village of Lakaran, in the municipality of Dumangas, Iloilo province to identify the resources, livelihood, problems, opportunities, and socioeconomic condition of the villagers prior to the conduct of farmer participatory research on mussel farming. RRA tools such as the construction of the village transect, seasonal calendar and wealth ranking were used.
    • Article

      Rapid wound healing in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed diets supplemented with ascorbic acid 

      G Erazo-Pagador & MS Din - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2001 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Wound healing in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed diets supplemented with ascorbic acid was studied under laboratory conditions. Fish weighing approximately 80-110 g were stocked in 500 l aquaria in a static water system and fed one of five test diets containing different levels of microencapsulated ascorbic acid (0, 0.06, 0.10, 0.30 and 0.70 g AsA/100 g feed). After two weeks, all experimental fish were wounded by making a 1 x 1 cm dorso-lateral incision above the lateral line of the fish. Wounded tissues were sampled for histopathological analysis 4, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hours, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after making the incision. There were significant differences in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio among the dietary treatments. Weight gain and SGR of fish fed the ascorbic acid free diet were lower than those of fish fed diets supplemented with ascorbic acid. The wound healing response showed a direct correlation to ascorbate level in the diet. Fibroblasts were present at 96 h irrespective of the ascorbic acid level. As 14 days, fish fed no ascorbic acid had some regeneration of muscle tissues, whereas fish fed diets containing supplemental ascorbic acid had a normal epidermis, dermis and muscle structure. There was no mortality during the experimental period, and fish fed ascorbic acid free diets did not exhibit any deficiency signs. Results of this study indicate that about 0.10-0.70 g AsA/100 g feed is needed for wound repair in African catfish.
    • Conference paper

      Reaching the poor through aquaculture: The case of technology adoption in rural communities at west central Philippines 

      DB Baticados - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture is promoted for food security and poverty alleviation in developing countries. This study examines the socio-economic impact of aquaculture technologies extended to calamitystricken rural communities in Nueva Valencia, Guimaras, representing the marine water fishery and in Dumarao, Capiz, representing the inland freshwater fishery at west central Philippines. The adoption pathway employed in both sites was community-based and participatory. The survey was conducted among cooperators and non-cooperators, randomly selected in equal numbers in two sites with 60 respondents each per site using a pre-tested interview schedule.

      Results showed that aquaculture is an acceptable technology both for cooperators and noncooperators. The venture is a profitable business either done individually or collectively through an association, if managed properly. Milkfish cage culture, however, needs big capital that technology adoption among local fisherfolk (Guimaras) is limited. In contrast, tilapia cage culture enables small farmers/fishers in Dumarao to venture on their own. Dumarao growers were able to innovate using local materials like bamboo poles to make their cages afloat instead of drums or plastic containers as buoys. There were, however, environmental, technological and institutional issues deterring technology adoption in both sites. Climate change and institutional issues were the more prevalent concerns of Dumarao growers. The technological issues like fluctuating market price, cost of feeds, and fry supply were more enunciated in Guimaras.
    • magazineArticle

      Realizing green aquaculture 

      AP Surtida - SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture, 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Rearing of the larval stages of prawn, Penaeus japonicus Bate, using artificial diet. 

      CT Villegas & A Kanazawa - Memoirs of the Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific, 1980 - Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific
      Survival and growth rates of the zoeal and mysis stages of the prwn, Penaeus japonicus Bate, were studied using natural and artificial diets.

      The highest survival rate, 34.2%, was obtained in the larvae fed with the artificial diet, Diet-B. Larvae fed with the diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, plus Artemia nauplii did not give the best survival; however, growth was the fastest in this group. The larvae metamorphosed into the mysis3 stage in 8 days. The results thus seem to demonstrate tat Diet-B is an effective diet for the early larval stages of the prawn, P. japonicus.
    • Conference paper

      Recent Asian initiatives under the NACA regional programme on aquatic animal health management 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In Y Inui & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Disease Control in Fish and Shrimp Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques: Proceedings … Aquaculture in Southeast Asia - Diagnosis and Husbandry Techniques, 4-6 December 2001, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The activities of NACA in support of improving aquatic animal health management within Asia dates back since 1986 when it was first involved in the UNDP/FAO/ODA (and subsequently DFID) sponsored program on Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS). Consequently, in cooperation with relevant governments and institutions, NACA implemented a Regional Research Program on Ulcerative Syndrome in Fish and the Environment, from 1986 to 1989, which produced most of the scientific data on environmental parameters associated with EUS outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region. Between 1989-1990, NACA and ADB implemented the Regional Study and Workshop on Fish Disease and Fish Health Management which revealed a scenario of environment-linked disease problems, product contamination, and environmental impacts on aquaculture, and for the first time losses suffered by Asian aquaculture from fish diseases were quantified. The study provided the first broad guidelines to regional and national strategies for developing capacities in fish health management. In 1991, OIE Tokyo approached NACA to initiate cooperation with respect to aquatic animal disease reporting which eventually led to an Expert Consultation on Aquatic Animal Disease Reporting in 1996. Between 1992 to 1996, NACA was involved in the following regional activities: (a) collaborating with IDRC and UPM in a Tropical Fish Health Management course, that ran for two intakes of students at UPM; (b) participating in the FAO 1994 Expert Consultation on Health Management held at UPM in Malaysia; and (c) the 1996 Consultation on Quarantine and Health Certification of FAO and AAHRI through the ODA-funded SEAADCP project. In l998, a joint publication - 'EUS Technical Handbook' with ACIAR, DFID, NSW Fisheries, AAHRI through SEAADCP and NACA - was completed.

      The major recommendations of the various regional meetings/consultations became the basis for the development of a strong multi-disciplinary Asia-Pacific regional programme on aquatic animal health management. At the request of Asian governments, NACA and FAO developed a Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on "Assistance for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals" (FAO RTCP/RAS 6714 and 9605). The project was implemented from 1998 to 2001 in cooperation with 21 governments/territories in Asia-Pacific region, OIE FDC, OIE Tokyo, AFFA, AusAID/APEC and AAHRI.

      The programme and its outputs were developed through three years (1998 to 2001) of awareness raising and consensus building through various national and regional level activities (e.g. workshops, training courses, expert consultation, health assessments, etc.). This multidisciplinary Regional Aquatic Animal Health Management Programme has now been adopted by Asian governments (including NACA members and participating governments within ASEAN) as an important element of NACA's Third Five Year Work Programme (2001-2005). The current thrust of the programme is to assist countries in implementing the 'Technical Guidelines', giving special emphasis to the concept of "phased implementation based on national needs", including monitoring and evaluation of its implementation. One of the mechanisms to support Asian governments in the implementation of the 'Technical Guidelines' is through regional cooperation where effective partnership with relevant organizations will be continuously established and strengthened. Designated National Coordinators will continue to be the focal points for its implementation.

      A Regional Advisory Group on Aquatic Animal Health has been established which will function as an official regional expert group that will ensure the provision of expert advice to Asian governments in the implementation of the 'Technical Guidelines', with NACA providing institutional support and FAO and OIE providing technical guidance. The main elements for regional cooperation include: (a) Promoting effective cooperation through regional resource centers on aquatic animal health; (b) Harmonization of procedures for health certification, quarantine and diagnostics; (c) Support to capacity building; (d) Awareness raising, communication and information exchange on aquatic animal health; (e) Regional disease reporting; (f) Emergency response; and (g) Joint activities for risk reduction in shared watersheds.The paper also briefly include other health related projects jointly being developed and/ or currently carried out by NACA with other organizations (e.g. ACIAR, APEC, ASEAN, CSIRO, DANIDA, IDRC, MPEDA, MRC and SEAFDEC-AQD).
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments and enhancing transfer of the nursery technology for the mud crab Scylla serrata 

      FD Parado-Estepa, V Alava, E Garibay, C Bejemino, J Sumile, J Silvestre & ET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & RM Coloso (Eds.), Philippines : In the forefront of the mud crab industry development : proceedings of the 1st National Mud Crab Congress, 16-18 November 2015, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2017 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The development of hatchery techniques for seed production of mud crab is expected to address the present problem on the depletion of wild seedstock supply for stocking in grow-out ponds. The nursery serves as the link between the two phases of culture as this involves growing of juvenile crabs produced in the hatchery to sizes that are suitable for stocking in the ponds.

      Nursery rearing involves the use of net cages installed in ponds as holding system for ease in harvest and retrieval of crabs. In the first nursery phase, 0.3-0.5 cm carapace width (CW) juvenile crabs are reared to 1.5-2.0 cm CW for 3-4 weeks and stocks are harvested for selling or are grown further in a second nursery phase in which crabs reach 2.5-3.0 cm after another 3-4 weeks. This paper includes a review of techniques initially developed for the nursery and more recent refinements which involve the use of higher crab instar densities, provision of suitable shelters, trimming of claws and sorting. In addition, production results in farms of collaborators are presented to highlight the efficiency of dissemination and also discusses the challenges faced by the potential nursery industry.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in aquaculture in Japan 

      K Fukusho - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture production in Japan in 1993 was 1,351,000 tons, 15.6% of the total fisheries production. About 93.6% came from mariculture and 6.4% from freshwater aquaculture. The per cent contribution of aquaculture to total production has increased in recent years but partly because marine fisheries,especially of sardine and pollack, have decreased. Aquaculture has reached a plateau, and decreased slightly between 1992 and 1993. Diverse marine and freshwater species are cultured in Japan — various fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, seaweeds, sea squirt, sea urchin, and others. Research and development in mariculture focus on finding substitutes for animal protein in feeds, improvement of fish quality, protection of the culture environment, use of offshore floating culture systems, and protection from diseases. Research in freshwater aquaculture has expanded to include recreational fishing, the propagation and preservation of endangered species, and the construction of fish ladders for salmonids and other migratory species.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in design and management of small-scale hatchery for Penaeus monodon in the Philippines 

      PG Gabasa Jr. - In Working Party on Small-Scale Shrimp/Prawn Hatcheries in Southeast Asia, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 16-21 November 1981, 1982 - South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme
      It is a common belief that the zoea of Penaeus monodon are completely filter feeders. Thus, diatoms like chaetoceros and phytoflagellates are maintained at high feeding densities as much as 80 000 cells/ml in hatchery tanks during the zoeal states of the P.monodon. This feeding scheme often results in the reddening of the larvae followed by weakening, loss of appetite and eventual mass mortality.

      It was found out recently that zoea larvae are not completely filter feeders. It was observed as early as Zoae 1, the mouth parts of the larvae are already functional and can eat food particles as big as Artimeia and Brachionus.

      Based on this observation, a new feeding scheme was developed. Boiled egg yolk is fed to the larvae at 15-22 particles (as big as Brachionus) per ml from Zoea 2 to Mysis 3 stages. Tetraselmis is given from Zoea 1 to Mysis 3 stages at a low density level of 5 000 cells/ml. Artemia is also fed at 10-15 individuals/ml from Mysis 1 to Postlarvae 5. If Tetraselmis is not available, bread yeast is given from Zoea 1 to 3 at 0.1-03 g/ton as supplementery feed. With this new feeding scheme, the hatchery producers have been greatly simplified considering that the most difficult and tedious part in larval rearing is the maintenance of algal food especially diatoms.

      This feeding scheme was tested in a private hatchery in Bataan, Aklan province by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department from July to October 1981. All 44 runs were successful, yielding survival rates ranging from 22 to 75 percent and an average rate of 52.9 percent.

      The hatchery system was further simplified when experiments at the Bataan Substation of the SEAFDEC AQD revealed that as high as 60 percent survival can be attained with minimal aeration. Instead of centralized aeration system using compressors or blowers, portable aquarium-type aerators (5-watt) could be use thus minimizing energy consumption.

      Based on these developments, a new model for a small-scale hatchery system is proposed.

    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in freshwater and marine cage aquaculture in the Philippines 

      CL Marte, P Cruz & EEC Flores - In IC Liao & CK Lin (Eds.), Cage Aquaculture in Asia: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Cage Aquaculture in Asia, 2-6 November 1999, Tungkang Marine Laboratory, Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute, Tungkang, Taiwan, 2000 - Asian Fisheries Society; World Aquaculture Society - Southeast Asian Chapter
      Fish production from freshwater cages and pens, and marine cages and pens constitute 19% of the total foodfish produced from aquaculture in the Philippines. In 1998, production from freshwater cages and pens contributed about P 2.5 billion or about 10% of the total revenues from aquaculture. Freshwater cage and pen culture is practiced in most of the major lakes and reservoirs in the country. The most important species cultured in freshwater cages are tilapia and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) while milkfish (Chanos chanos) is farmed in freshwater pens at Laguna de Bay. Small water impoundments intended for the irrigation of upland farms are also being used to culture tilapia and other freshwater fish in cages. The unregulated expansion of cages and pens, use of high stocking densities, and excessive feeding has resulted in the deterioration of the water quality in many areas. This has prompted the more informed local government authorities to adopt measures limiting further expansion of cage and pen culture activities beyond the carrying capacity of freshwater bodies to prevent periodic occurrences of mass fish kills.

      While cage mariculture of groupers has been practiced in the Philippines since the 1980 s, it was only in the early 1990 s that much of the growth and expansion of the industry occurred with the popularization of milkfish mariculture. In the last five years, no less than 1,000 cages with an aggregate capacity in excess of 10,000 metric tons a year have been invested in milkfish sea farming. The species now acounts for about 90% of the production from marine cages. In recent years, a drop in milkfish prices has motivated the industry to focus its attention on other fishes, primarily grouper (Epinephelus spp.), snapper (Lutjanus spp.), sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and siganid (Siganus spp.). Currently, imported species such as red tilapia, yellow-wax pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) are also being tested by the private sector. A high production cost due to low feed conversion efficiency and high seed cost is presently the greatest concern of marine cage farmers. In some areas, unregulated expansion has already led to problems in water quality.
    • Book

      Recent developments in prawn pond culture 

      FD Apud - 1989 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension pamphlet; No. 1
      This document presents the recommended methodology, nominal projections and partial costs and returns, for extensive prawn culture at two production objectives, and semi-intensive culture with costs and returns breakdown for three production targets. Intensive prawn culture procedures are not discussed.

      Extensive Prawn Culture System I projects a production yield of about 110 to 160 kg/ha/crop or more in four months and survival rate of from 65 to 70%. The extensive Prawn Culture System II aims for a production rate of about 230 kg/ha/crop in four months at about 70% survival with expected average body weight of about 25 grams. The procedures indicated have been verified and are now widely practiced.

      Production targets under the Semi-intensive Prawn Culture System I range from 350 to 500 kg/ha in four months at survival rate of about 70 to 75% and expected average size at harvest of about 28 to 30 pcs/kg. This method has been confirmed at different collaborative sites using the modified SEAFDEC diet developed by the Feed Development staff of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in seaweed diseases 

      DB Largo - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in the study and surveillance of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Asia 

      GD Lio-Po - In MG Bondad-Reantaso, JB Jones, F Corsin & A Takashi (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Taipei, Taiwan 20-26 June 2008, 2011 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Koi herpesvirus infection causes significant mortalities in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and ghost carp (common x koi cross, Cyprinus carpio koi). Outbreaks have been reported in many countries worldwide i.e. UK, Germany, Israel, USA, Belgium, South Africa, Switzerland, The Netherlands, France, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxemburg and Poland. The first outbreaks attributed to KHV in Asian countries were reported from Hong Kong in 2001; Indonesia in 2002; Taiwan in 2002; Japan in 2003; Thailand in 2005; and Singapore in 2005. Thereafter, research studies embarked on KHV focused on pathogenicity, cell line susceptibility, fish size susceptibility, predilection to fish organs, persistence in fish, vaccine development and application, surveillance and gene sequence analyses of KHV strains. To date, annual active surveillance of the virus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, the Philippines and Vietnam showed that these countries were free of KHV from 2004 to 2007. Several strains of KHV apparently affect koi and common carp in this region indicating that transboundary movement of the virus has occurred not only in Asia but also from Europe and the Americas. The extensive international trade in live ornamental koi fish has largely contributed to the global spread of KHV. Hence, KHV disease (KHVD) was recently added to the list of notifiable diseases of the World Organisation of Animal Health or the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), an indication of the global significance of this viral infection.
    • magazineArticle

      Recent studies on fish health at SEAFDEC/AQD 

      Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department - Aqua Farm News, 1994 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Recent technical developments in aquaculture and training needs 

      CL Marte - In CL Marte (Ed.), Aquaculture in Asia and the Pacific : report of an APO seminar 25th August - 4th September, 1992, Tokyo, Japan, 1995 - Asian Productivity Organization
      This paper attempts to present recent developments and techniques in breeding, seed production, genetics, feed development, and fish health management. Most of the innovative findings come from work done on well-studied species such as salmonids and carps while investigations done on tropical species are cited.
    • Conference paper

      Recent trends in fish diseases in Japan 

      H Sako - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Losses of cultured marine and freshwater fishes due to diseases averaged about 20,000 tons each year or 6% of the aquaculture production in Japan in 1980-1991. During this last decade, bacterial diseases have been responsible for most of the losses. Three trends are evident from epidemiological data. First, diseases caused by bacteria with multiple drug resistance are prevalent, and these are difficult to overcome by chemotherapy. Second, parasitic diseases and viral diseases that are practically impossible to cure are increasing. Third, some diseases seem to originate in juveniles (seed) imported from other countries. Further research should focus on: (1) improving dietary and environmental conditions, (2) giving the host animals resistance against disease through methods such as vaccination, and (3) developing diagnostic and disinfection procedures for epidemics. Active exchange of information is necessary to prevent, or alleviate the effects of, the spread of diseases through international export and import of juveniles.
    • Conference paper

      Recirculating aquaculture systems: experiences, concepts, designs, and equipment 

      AA delos Reyes Jr. - In LG Tansinsin, PM Halos, EP Sonido, PG Anglo, LM Rabago, FB Sevilla III & FT dela Peña (Eds.), Harnessing Science and Technology to Meet the Global Challenge. Proceedings of the World Conference on Science and Technology, Manila, Philippines (13-15 September 2001), 2002 - Philippine Association for the Advancement of Science (PhilAAS)
      In a general sense, recirculating aquaculture system are designed tp approximate the fundamental aspects of natural system in order to support aquatic life. They may involve tank, pund, and other culture system where water is reused. In fish culture, the waste load mainly results from excreta and wasted feed, shich obviously cause water quality deterioration if unchecked. System management requires major attention to water quality, mainly dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended solids.

      The processes required and options for water treatment in recirculating systems have been clearly recognized. Among the critical processes are gas exchange (aeration and degasification), solids removal, and biological filtration or biofiltration. Solids removal is a solid-liquid separation process, and may onvolve garavity separation, filtration (screen, granual media, porous media), and flotation for finr organics and other solids (foam fractionation, protein skimming, froth flotation, and air stripping are other terms used). Biofiltration involves the use of living organisms to treat the wate. In tank recirculating system, it refers primarily to nitrification, which is the conversion of toxic ammonia and intermediate form nitrite to relatively harmless nitrate. In pund system and integrated system, biofiltration also includes the utilizationof aquatic plants and animals other than the culture species.

      Other treatment processes include pH and alkalinity control, denitrification, and ultraviolet (UV) sterilization. Heaters and/ or chillersmay be proviede for trmperature control. While the processes and equipment are provided for specific purposes, thet are complementary, and a complex interrelationship exists in recirculating system. System design, components, and sizing criteria vary widely, and are mainly provided to comply with specific production needs, Recirculating systems for fish production are generally meant to be intensive. The paramount objectives is to design reliabel and cost-effective system.