Now showing items 1-20 of 22

    • Book

      Best management practices for a mangrove-friendly shrimp farming 

      DD Baliao & S Tookwinas - 2002 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; Association of Southeast Asian Nations
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 35
      This 50-page manual puts together the best practices that SEAFDEC/AQD has developed with the Department of Fisheries in Thailand. These practices include the use of biomanipulators and greenwater system, the use of settling ponds with baffles and biofilters, the use of sludge collectors among others. These practices have been field-tested in Thailand, the Philippines, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
    • Article

      Broodstock transplantation: An approach for stock enhancement of the 'kapis' shell Placuna placenta along Panay Gulf, central Philippines 

      JA Madrones-Ladja, ET Aldon & DD Baliao - The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2012 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      The Panay Gulf in central Philippines once supported a substantial ‘kapis’ Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population that was among the six major sources for this species. However, stock depletion began in the late 1980s because of overexploitation and destructive fishing practices. To recover the declining ‘kapis’ fishery along the Gulf, a broodstock transplantation program was initiated in 1999. Results from a survey of the Gulf prior to this program confirmed reports of resource depletion. Four (4) transplantation sites (S) with natural soft-muddy substrata in adjacent coastal towns, namely, Tigbauan (S1 and S2), Guimbal (S3) and Oton (S4) were established and stocked with 3200 (1:1 male to female ratio) sexually mature ‘kapis’ broodstock collected from nearby Negros Island in March–October 1999. Transplant survival along the sites ranged 80–100%. Spontaneous spawning by ‘kapis’ transplants occurred from March 1999 (15 d after first stocking) through May 2000. Larvae (5 larvae per L) began to appear at S1 15 d after transplantation and progressively increased in density to 23 larvae per L in November 1999. During this period, local divers reported big patches of ‘kapis’ juveniles [shell length (SL), 38 ± 11 mm] at S4. Sex ratio of recruits was 3:2 (male: female). Larvae became abundant off the nearby coasts with a strong recruitment pulse at 160 larvae per L at S4 by January 2000. Likewise, transplants taken to the laboratory were induced to spawn by photochemical method, and thus validated the spawning that occurred in transplantation sites. Juvenile recruits were of variable sizes, indicating that spawning was not simultaneous. Sexually mature juvenile recruits (40% female, 90% male) were already observed in January–February 2000. The recruitment apparently resulting from these transplants was local, dispersion ranging from zero to a few kilometers distance from transplantation sites. ‘Kapis’ harvest began in 2007 for local market consumption while commercial harvest was done in 2010 with approximately 600 tons.

      The repopulation of ‘kapis’ along Panay Gulf after a decade indicated the success of the restocking program which was attributed to the suitability of the species, reproduction of transplants and the proper management of the newly established resource by the coastal fishers who are members of a local organization (FARMC) with the support of local government units (LGUs).
    • Article

      Comparison of the silo and broadcast methods of applying organic fertilizer in milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), ponds 

      DD Gerochi, MM Lijauco & DD Baliao - Aquaculture, 1988 - Elsevier
      The efficacy of the silo and broadcast methods of applying organic fertilizers in ponds for the production of pond-floor, microbenthic biological complex, a natural food source known as lablab, was tested in 1-ha ponds, replicated thrice in time. Although there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in milkfish growth, survival and production between the two treatments tested, after 90 days production tended to be higher in ponds prepared with the silo method. Advantages of the silo method are that it is less laborious, cheaper, and less time consuming than the broadcast method and results in consistent lablab growth until the end of the culture period.
    • Article

      Culture of finfish in netcages 

      DD Baliao, MA De los Santos & NM Franco - Aquaculture Engineering, 1998 - Society of Aquaculture Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.
      This report consists of two parts, the first deals on the cage culture of grouper, and the second on cage culture of tilapia. The culture of groupers is done in netcages set in marine waters, while tilapia is raised in netcages set in freshwater ponds, reservoirs or in lakes.
    • Article

      An economic analysis of the modular pond system of milkfish production in the Philippines 

      RF Agbayani, DD Baliao, NM Franco, RB Ticar & NG Guanzon Jr. - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      In 1980, the annual yield of milkfish ponds in the Philippines was 800 kg/ha while the potential yield is estimated to be 2000 kg/ha. The modular pond system analyzed in this study can largely close the gap between actual and potential yield through more efficient use of pond capacity to increase the number of croppings up to 7 times in 1 year. Pilot-scale production using the modular pond system was done at the Leganes Research Station (LRS) SEAFDEC, Iloilo, and at three cooperating commercial farms. Scale of operation ranged from 2.7 ha to 7.9 ha. From 2 to 7 production runs were recorded with per hectare outputs ranging from 278 kg to 341 kg per run. Input costs were based on actual figures and the ex-farm milkfish price as P21.00 (4 to 6 fish/kg). The average return on investment and payback period for all sites was 68.81% and 1.25 years, respectively.
    • Article

      Economic feasibility analysis of the monoculture of mudcrab (Scylla serrata) Forsskal 

      RF Agbayani, DD Baliao, GPB Samonte, RE Tumaliuan & R Caturao - Aquaculture, 1990 - Elsevier
      Mudcrabs, Scylla serrata Forsskal, were monocultured at different stocking densities: 5000, 10 000, 15 000 and 20 000/ha for 90 days. Highest mean weight, survival and relative growth increment (P>0.05) were obtained from a stocking density of 5000/ha. Best feed conversion ratio of 1.72 and corresponding gross production of 1019 kg/ha per crop were attained at the same stocking density. The economic indicators, i.e., return on investment and return on equity, were also highest at 5000/ha stocking density and the payback period was shortest. Partial budgeting showed that no incremental benefit accrued from stocking beyond 5000/ha. Sensitivity analysis showed that even if the value of mudcrab were to decrease by 28%, mudcrab monoculture would still be economically viable.
    • Article

      The economics and marketing of cage-raised finfish and pen-raised mudcrab 

      DD Baliao, MA de los Santos & NM Franco - Aquaculture Engineering, 1998 - Society of Aquaculture Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.
      As part of the technology verification exercise for technologies developed through research, the economics and marketing aspects were investigated before such technologies can be extended to industry practitioners. These were done for groupers raised in marine fishcages, tilapia raised in fishcages set in farm reservoirs, and for mudcrabs raised in pens set in mangroves.
    • Article

      The economics of retarding milkfish growth for fingerling production in brackishwater ponds 

      DD Baliao, NM Franco & RF Agbayani - Aquaculture, 1987 - Elsevier
      Two experiments were conducted to measure the economic viability of retarding milkfish growth (stunting) in brackishwater ponds. In the first experiment, 2-month-old fish were reared for 6 months in ponds with initial stocking densities of 15, 20, 25, and 30 fish/m2. The second experiment had a common stocking density of 20 fish/m2 with rearing periods of 6, 9, and 12 months. All experiments followed the lab-lab method of growing natural food plus additional substrates. Supplemental feeding using rice bran mixed with ground trash fish started 60 days after initial stocking.

      Under Philippine conditions stunting milkfish fingerlings at 20 fish/m2 for 6–9 months is most cost effective; this permits the production of milkfish fingerlings for lower cost than they can be purchased.
    • Article

      Effect of stocking density and duration on stunting milkfish fingerlings in ponds 

      DD Baliao, RB Ticar & NG Guanzon Jr. - Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 1986 - Taylor & Francis
      The paper discusses the effect of stocking density and holding periods in stunting milkfish fingerlings in brackishwater ponds using twelve units of 144m2 earthen ponds. With 15, 20, and 25 fingerlings/m2 growth and survival rates were not significant (P<0.05) averaging 13.60g and 83.47%, respectively. Lowest survival (54.52%) and growth rates (10.80g) were obtained in treatment with highest density level of 30 fingerlings/m2. Using the density of 20 fingerlings/m2 different stunting periods of 6, 9, and 12 months were tried. Survival and growth rates were not significant for 6 and 9 months stunting periods averaging 79.98% and 13.21 g. At longest (12 months) stunting period however survival was lowest (52.05%).

      In stunting milkfish fingerlings, a density of 15 to 25 pcs/m2 could be tried at a stunting period of 6 to 9 months in order to obtain an optimum survival of 81.7% and growth rate of 13.4 g.
    • Book

      Environment-friendly schemes in intensive shrimp farming 

      DD Baliao - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 31
      The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has been successfully raised by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Technology Verification and Extension Section at its Dumangas Brackishwater Station. The approaches in the culture method employed in the series of verification runs in the brackishwater station are documented to serve as an interim guide for shrimp growers while these are still being further refined and standardized.
    • Book

      Grouper culture in brackishwater ponds 

      DD Baliao, MA de los Santos, EM Rodriguez & RB Ticar - 1998 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 24
      Groupers (Epinephelus) are cultured in the Philippines using tiny fry and juveniles caught from the wild. A SEAFDEC/AQD technology verification study on grouper pond grow-out culture resulted in high productivity and profitability, indicating that grouper culture could become another income source for the country. This aquaculture extension manual is intended as a guide for fishfarmers and aquaculturists, extensionists, and students of aquaculture. It covers the following areas: What are groupers?; Commercially important groupers; Source of fry or fingerlings; Common collection gears for fry/juveniles; Brackishwater pond culture -- pond specifications, site selection, pond preparation, nursery operation, grow-out culture, harvest, post-harvest; Growth, survival and feed efficiency performance of grouper reared in brackishwater pond; Economics; Marketing and transport; and, Diseases.
    • Book

      Grouper culture in floating net cages 

      DD Baliao, MA delos Santos, NM Franco & NRS Jamon - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 29
      The manual describes the culture of groupers (Epinephelus) in floating cages, providing a farming option for grouper growers and also a production alternative to the farmed species being done today, such as shrimp, milkfish and tilapia. The following aspects are covered: species identification for commercially cultured groupers; source of stock; net cage specifications; anchor; hides and shelters; nursery net cage operation; production cages; harvesting; post-harvest; profitability analysis of grouper cage culture; and, cost and return of growing grouper in cages.
    • Article

      Low or partial discharge and closed-recirculating systems for the culture of shrimp [Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)] at several demonstration sites in the Philippines 

      DD Baliao & MA de los Santos - The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2011 - College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños
      A series of verification runs on the farming of shrimp [Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)] using environment-friendly techniques was conducted in different pilot demonstration sites including privately owned farms in the Philippines from 2001 to 2005. Encouraging results were achieved using the low or partial discharge and closed-recirculating systems following the advanced environment-friendly protocols. In the low or partial discharge system, 11 grow-out ponds were stocked with P. monodon post larvae (PL) at densities between 15 and 25 m-2 while in the closedrecirculating system, eight grow-out ponds were stocked with PLs at densities between 30 and 60 m-2. Both systems incorporated the use of head and tail reservoirs, crop rotation, filter box, salinity reduction, long-arm paddlewheel aerators, biomanipulators, biofilters, sludge collectors and quality feeds.

      In the low or partial discharge system, an average total yield of 5.3 ± 0.8 tons ha-1, a feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.4 ± 0.3 and a survival rate of 86 ± 12 % were achieved after 109–159 d of culture (DOC). In a closed recirculating system, however, an average total yield of 8.3 ± 4.0 tons ha-1, FCR of 1.9 ± 0.2 and survival rate of 76 ± 15 % were achieved after 126–150 DOC.

      Analyses of effluents from grow-out ponds revealed that treatment using the tail reservoir with installed baffles and oysters (Crossostrea sp.) and seaweed (Gracilaria sp.) used as biofilters effectively reduced the dissolved organic nutrient concentration to optimum levels before the water was recycled or released to the surrounding body of water. Shrimps were observed to be growing and feeding normally, with no signs of bioluminescence at night, and no sluggish swimming behavior.
    • Article

      Management of brackishwater pond for milkfish fingerling production in Sri Lanka 

      DD Baliao - Journal of Inland Fisheries, 1982 - Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
      The author reviews the present methods of milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry collection and presents his observations and recommendations of improvement.
    • Book

      Milkfish culture in brackishwater ponds 

      MM Lijauco, JV Juario, DD Baliao, E Grino & GF Quinitio - 1979 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 4
      The manual is intended as a guide for operation in milkfish farming. It is presented under the following major sections: 1) Handling of fry - counting, storage and transport; 2) Pond layout and construction - selection of farm site, layout, construction, plan and specification; 3) Pond operation, culture and management - nursery pond management and rearing pond operation; 4) Harvest and post-harvest - harvest, post harvest, and processing; and 5) Economics and costing - cost of construction, cost of operation, and production/yield.
    • Book

      The modular method: Milkfish pond culture 

      DD Baliao, MA de los Santos & NM Franco - 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 25
      The modular method of milkfish culture (Chanos chanos) described in the manual is an improvement over the traditional extensive method. The manual is intended for the use of fish farmers and aquaculturists, extensionists, and students of aquaculture not only in the Philippines, but also in other milkfish-producing countries in Southeast Asia and the world. It covers the following: Interesting facts about milkfish -- biological characteristics, artificial breeding of milkfish; Design and operation of modular pond system -- pond preparation, stocking in the nursery or transition ponds, stocking in the rearing ponds, care of stock, pond utilization and production schedule, harvest and post-harvest; and, Economics and costing.
    • encyclopediaArticle

      Mud crab culture 

      DD Baliao - In RR Stickney (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Aquaculture, 2000 - John Wiley and Sons
      Mud crabs are one of the most widely sought crustacean species that inhabit the estuarine areas and tidal rivers and creeks of the Asian and Indo-Pacific regions. Hailed as "food for the gods," the mud crab is recognized as a candidate species for culture in brackishwater ponds and/or other suitable impounded brackishwater environments.

      In the past, mud crabs were a secondary species to cultured finfishes or crustaceans. Larvae entered ponds with incoming water and became trapped. Although conceived as a fishpond crop, the mud crab has also been considered a nuisance in ponds because it burrows into dikes and causes damage and leaks.

      Farming of mud crab has been progressing rapidly due to a promising market and profitability.

      With the availability of mud crab juveniles from the wild throughout the year and the recent development in hatchery technology, there is a strong indication that production of mud crabs on a commercial scale could be a lucrative industry.

      The information presented here is based on the recently published extension manuals and literature on mud crab culture both in brackishwater ponds and pen enclosures in mangroves.
    • Article

      Mudcrab pen culture in mangroves 

      DD Baliao & MA de los Santos - Aquaculture Engineering, 1998 - Society of Aquaculture Engineers of the Philippines, Inc.
      Over the years, commercial production of mudcrab, Scylla spp, has been undertaken only in bamboo or net-fenced brackishwater ponds. Its feasibility was proven through series of verification trials conducted in commercial ponds by SEAFDEC/AQD researchers and is now being practiced elsewhere in the country.

      Of late, the introduction of using net enclosure to grow mudcrabs in mangroves or tidal zones offers a bright prospect in aquasilviculture. Using mangroves as natural resource, paves the natural way of creating livelihood among fisherfolk in the coastal areas. While this method is by far not very popular in the Philippines, the same has been carried out for quite some time in Indonesia, Malaysia, Viet Nam and China. The advantages of this method include low investment cost, ease of construction, environment-friendly and this project can be operated quickly.
    • Book

      Mudcrab, Scylla spp, production in brackishwater ponds 

      DD Baliao, MA de los Santos & NM Franco - 1999 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 28
      Mudcrab (Scylla spp) production in brackishwater ponds is now gaining popularity, especially in communities that need to supplement their income. The manual covers the following: Distribution; Grow-out operation in ponds - site selection, pond specification, pond preparation, source of juveniles, transport and stocking of juveniles, care of pond and stock, feeds and feeding, harvest, post-harvest; Production and profits; Cost and analysis. It is hoped that the manual will be of use to fishfarmers and aquaculturists, extensionists, and students of aquaculture not only in the Philippines but also in other mudcrab producing countries in Southeast Asia.
    • Book

      Net cage culture of tilapia in dams and small farm reservoirs 

      DD Baliao, MA de los Santos, NM Franco & NRS Jamon - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 30
      The manual describes the net cage of tilapia in dams and small farm reservoirs, which has been found to be a low-cost yet high-income earning farm activity and offers an excellent option as an alternative livelihood for poor inland fisherfolks. The following aspects are covered: 1) Characteristics of a suitable site; 2) Design of the net cages - the floating cage, the stationary/fixed cage; 3) Stocking the net cages - source of juveniles, stocking rate, stocking time, acclimation; 4) Management of the cages - feeds and feeding, monitoring activities; 5) Harvesting - partial harvest, total harvest; and, 6) Profitability analysis.