Now showing items 1-20 of 28

    • Conference paper

      Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from aquaculture environments in the Philippines 

      EA Tendencia & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In Proceedings of the International Workshop: Antibiotic Resistance in Aquaculture Environments, 24-25 February 2005, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2005 - ASIARESIST
      Antibiotics have been used in aquaculture as feed additives to promote growth and added in water to prevent disease occurrence. Therapeutic doses are used to treat diseases. Long-term use and misuse of antibiotics may result to drug resistant bacterial strains and accumulation of unwanted residues in the cultured commodity upon slaughter and harvest. Some of the antibiotics that have been used in shrimp hatcheries and grow-out ponds are tetracycline, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurans, erythromycin, oxolinic acid and furazolidone. Oxytetracycline, furanace, terramycin, Ektecin, chloramphenicol and sulfa drugs have been used to treat fish bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been isolated from shrimp rearing water, natural bodies of water that received effluents from aquaculture, and from cultured apecies in the Philippines. Resistance to oxytetracycline and furaltadon were reported in bacteria isolated from crab and nearshore sediments. Bacteria from shrimp ponds have been reported to be resistant to oxytetracycline, furazolidone, oxolinic acid and chloramphenicol. Luminous vibrios from shrimp larvae and ponds were resistant to erythromycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, Penicillin, streptomycin, sulfadiazine and triple sulfa. Aeromonas sp. from fish, shrimp, and their rearing water were resistant to streptomycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Multiple antibiotic resistance has also been reported in bacteria isolated from shrimp, shrimp ponds, luminous bacteria from shrimp post larvae, and Aeromonas hydrophila from fish. Despite the recorded usage, antibiotic residues in cultured food fish have not yet been a problem of the Philippine aquaculture industry as far as trade is concerned. However, chloramphenicol and nitrofurazolidone residues have been detected in shrimp for export using the enzyme link immunoassay (ELISA) technique.

      To minimize the use of antibiotics, different alternative methods to prevent diseases in aquaculture have evolved. Government agencies also issued regulations on the use of antibiotics.
    • magazineArticle

      Application of GIS in shrimp disease surveillance and monitoring 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & JB Biñas - GIS Link, 2009 - National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
    • Article

      Bacterial flora in the hepatopancreas of pond-reared Penaeus monodon juveniles with luminous vibriosis 

      EM Leaño, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & MG Paner - Aquaculture, 1998 - Elsevier
      Quantification and characterization of bacterial flora in the hepatopancreas (hp) of pond-reared Penaeus monodon juveniles affected with luminous bacteria were conducted in 1994 and 1995. Shrimp samples were taken from 23 grow-out ponds, 14 of which had disease outbreaks. Luminous bacterial (LB) load of the shrimps' hp with (mean=2.4×101 colony forming units (CFU)/hp) and without (mean=0.3×101 CFU/hp) disease outbreaks were comparable during the first 15 days of culture (DOC). During disease outbreaks at 18 to 32 DOC, however, LB load of affected shrimps (mean=9.0×104 CFU/hp) were higher than healthy shrimps (mean=7.0×101 CFU/hp). At 50 to 60 DOC, levels of LB were comparable in older shrimps with or without disease. Total viable and presumptive Vibrio counts were also comparable in both shrimp samples from 1 to 60 DOC. Characterization of the 172 bacterial isolates collected showed that most (90.12%) were Vibrio species dominated by V. harveyi (27.91%), V. splendidus II (13.37%) and V. parahaemolyticus (10.46%).
    • Book chapter

      Disease development 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease occurrence is one of the biggest deterrents to sustainable production in aquaculture. It is therefore important to enhance awareness among various sectors of the importance of health management in the aquaculture industry. This can be done through education and information dissemination. Students in fisheries and veterinary medicine need to have adequate background information on the aquatic animal disease and health management to understand the problems and needs of a fast-growing aquaculture industry. Recognizing disease signs early and using mortality pattern as a clue to the disease agent involved will not only make diagnosis easier, but it will also prevent massive losses by timely implementation of remedial measures.
    • Book

      Diseases in farmed mud crabs Scylla spp.: Diagnosis, prevention, and control. 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo & LD de la Peña - 2004 - Aquaculture Dept., Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Aquaculture production has suffered many set-backs due to the occurrence of diseases. Many of the diseases are caused by infectious organisms that are difficult to detect and need sophisticated instruments for diagnosis, but most disease occurrence and mortality in farmed aquatic animals are related to poor rearing water quality. It is, therefore, important for technicians and farmers to recognize the relationship between the animals they culture and the aquatic environment. The Government of Japan, through the Regional Fish Disease Project, funded research on diseases affecting mud crabs in order to come up with sound prevention and control methods. This book is a collection of observations gathered from various research and commercial culture activities, and gives emphasis on disease recognition using simple techniques and gross observations of affected crabs. However, since many of the diseases are caused by microorganisms, microscopy is an important technique for their diagnosis. The authors of the book encourage active cooperation between farmers and diagnostic laboratories for disease identification, prevention, and control in order to build up more information to increase production. The Regional Fish Disease Project supports sustainable mud crab production and hopes that farmers and other users of this book will attain their production goals.
    • Book

      Diseases of penaeid shrimps in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, GD Lio-Po, ER Cruz-Lacierda, EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 16
      The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps cultured in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment. This revised edition includes newly discovered diseases. It is hoped that the manual will be of considerable help to shrimp farmers in identifying the disease and lead to prevention or early disease diagnosis and control.
    • Book

      Diseases of penaeid shrimps in the Philippines 

      MCL Baticados, ER Cruz-Lacierda, M de la Cruz, RC Duremdez-Fernandez, RQ Gacutan, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & GD Lio-po - 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 16
      The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps culture in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment.
    • Article

      Distribution of an oxytetracycline resistance determinant tet(34) among marine bacterial isolates of a Vibrio species 

      SR Kim, L Nonaka, MJ Oh, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & S Suzuki - Microbes and Environments, 2003 - Nakanishi Printing Co
      The distribution of tet(34) was examined among oxytetracycline (OTC) resistant Vibrio strains isolated from Japan, Korea and the Philippines. tet(34) was detected in 10 isolates (6 in fish, 4 in seawater) from Japan and Korea, suggesting that it is widely distributed among fish and seawater bacteria in these countries. Ninety-eight percent of the Vibrio strains in the Philippines were sensitive to OTC, but none of the 60 isolates from the Philippines. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of OTC-resistant isolates increased 2 to 8 fold in the presence of Mg2+, and MICs were higher in the Japanese and Korean isolates than the Philippine isolates. The MIC for furaltadone (FD) was low in Japanese (23.9%) isolates at over 3.1 μg/ml and high in Korean (50%) and Philippine (56.7%) isolates. This was probably due to the different frequency of use of FD in these countries. Sequences of 16S rDNA of tet(34)-positive isolates were 100% identical, suggesting that tet(34) is conveyed in a particular Vibrio species.
    • Article

      Genomic polymorphism in symbiotic populations of Photobacterium leiognathi 

      PV Dunlap, A Jiemjit, JC Ast, MM Pearce, RR Marques & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Environmental Microbiology, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      Photobacterium leiognathi forms a bioluminescent symbiosis with leiognathid fishes, colonizing the internal light organ of the fish and providing its host with light used in bioluminescence displays. Strains symbiotic with different species of the fish exhibit substantial phenotypic differences in symbiosis and in culture, including differences in 2-D PAGE protein patterns and profiles of indigenous plasmids. To determine if such differences might reflect a genetically based symbiont-strain/host-species specificity, we profiled the genomes of P. leiognathi strains from leiognathid fishes using PFGE. Individual strains from 10 species of leiognathid fishes exhibited substantial genomic polymorphism, with no obvious similarity among strains; these strains were nonetheless identified as P. leiognathi by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Profiling of multiple strains from individual host specimens revealed an oligoclonal structure to the symbiont populations; typically one or two genomotypes dominated each population. However, analysis of multiple strains from multiple specimens of the same host species, to determine if the same strain types consistently colonize a host species, demonstrated substantial heterogeneity, with the same genomotype only rarely observed among the symbiont populations of different specimens of the same host species. Colonization of the leiognathid light organ to initiate the symbiosis therefore is likely to be oliogoclonal, and specificity of the P. leiognathi/leiognathid fish symbiosis apparently is maintained at the bacterial species level rather than at the level of individual, genomotypically defined strain types.
    • Conference paper

      Healthy and wholesome aquaculture. 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, MR Catacutan & EC Amar - In BO Acosta, RM Coloso, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & JD Toledo (Eds.), Sustainable aquaculture development for food security in Southeast Asia towards 2020. Proceedings of the Regional Technical Consultation on Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia Towards 2020, 2011 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The concept of healthy and wholesome aquaculture as a holistic approach to sustainable food-fish production has gained more relevance since it was discussed in a similar SEAFDEC forum almost a decade ago. Similar concepts to optimize yield from various production systems with least impact on the environment include Best Management and Good Aquaculture Practices. The three prioritized areas of disease control, food safety and environmental integrity that were identified during the first Fish for the People Conference in 2001 guided the research and development strategies for the past decade. The dynamic nature of aquaculture, however, also paved the way for major species introductions that changed the regional production scenario altogether.

      An important component of effective disease prevention and control is the development of diagnostic techniques. In response to recommendations made in 200I during the first Fish for the People Conference, diagnostic procedures have been harmonized, classified according to levels of complexity, and a few have been translated into techniques for pond-side application. Disease surveillance and reporting have been enhanced in most countries and the awareness about transboundary diseases has been heightened. The region, however, still has a lot to learn about bringing in new and exotic species and their accompanying threat of disease introduction. The past decade has seen the replacement of Penaeus monodon by P. vannamei as the major shrimp species in culture that has resulted in the introduction of major viral diseases like infectious myonecrosis virus (lMNV) and taura syndrome virus (TSV). The first outbreak of koi herpes virus (KHV) occurred in Indonesia in 2002 and Japan in 2003, and the disease continues to affect the koi and common carp industry in some countries in Asia (Lavilla-Pitogo & Nagasawa 2004). Various parasites have become major threats to sustainable marine fish production. Thus, controlling the spread of important pathogens through the introduction of exotic fish species, or the transfer of infected fish to another facility or to wild habitat remains a major problem.

      The development of specific-pathogen-free stocks and the corresponding implementation of biosecurity measures are the most significant advancements to control viral diseases each a prerequisite of the other to guarantee successful production. The vastness of land-based aquaculture systems, however, makes the cost of implementing biosecurity prohibitive, thus, there remains the need for additional health implements to boost fish health like vaccines, immunostimulants, probiotics, chemotherapeutics and disinfectants. Although major research efforts have been devoted to develop such products, satisfactory field test results are wanting for most of them. The issue on unwanted residues in marketable fish products and the fate of antimicrobials and chemicals in the environment are the major deterrents for their widespread application in aquaculture. Furthermore, the lack of fish health professionals that are qualified to prescribe drugs and chemotherapeutants in aquaculture is an issue that needs urgent action in the region.

      The clamor for aquaculture to reduce its dependence on fish meal as the source of protein in artificial feeds has led to numerous studies about fishmeal substitutes. The search for suitable alternative fish feed ingredients may now require a combination of biochemical engineering and manufacturing to enhance the nutritional composition of non-traditional protein sources. Fishmeal substitutes and other feed ingredients that will not compromise fish health and drastically alter carcass composition needs to be developed. Since proper feed management is a key component for farm profitability and sustainability as well as in the reduction of environmental pollution, extension and technology transfer should continue so that various stakeholders will be informed of their responsibility. Efforts to improve fish feed development should continue keeping in mind that feed is a key determinant of fish health.

      For aquaculture to meet the target production to supply the protein requirements of a burgeoning global population, production systems should further emphasize the key components of keeping diseases under control, producing fish that pass food safety standards, and maintaining the integrity of the culture system and its environment. In various countries, supportive efforts are in the form of certification, accreditation and compliance of aquaculture facilities with standards. However, aquaculture, being a relatively new sector in the food production industry, needs to harmonize its efforts with other common resource users.
    • Article

      The Leiognathus aureus complex (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) with the description of a new species 

      S Kimura, PV Dunlap, T Peristiwady & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Ichthyological Research, 2003 - Ichthyological Society of Japan
      Taxonomic analysis of a group of morphologically similar ponyfishes (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) establishes a complex comprising three valid species: Leiognathus aureus Abe and Haneda, 1972, widely distributed in the western Pacific Ocean (Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, and northern Australia); L. hataii Abe and Haneda, 1972, currently known only from Ambon, Indonesia; and L. panayensis sp. nov. Kimura and Dunlap, currently known only from Panay Island, the Philippines. The L. aureus complex can be defined by the following combination of characters: mouth protruding forward, not downward; small but sharp conical teeth uniserially on jaws; a black line between lower margin of eye and lower jaw articulation; and lateral line incomplete, ending below posterior part of dorsal fin base or on anterior caudal peduncle. Leiognathus hataii differs from both L. aureus and L. panayensis in having a large dark blotch below the spinous dorsal fin base and fewer counts of scales (lateral line scales 50–58 vs. 64–85 in the latter two species; scales above lateral line 7–10 vs. 12–18; scales below lateral line 22–26 vs. 30–41). Leiognathus panayensis is distinguished from L. aureus in having a deeper body (41–51% SL vs. 35–45% SL in the latter), long posterior limb of maxilla (21–25% HL vs. 15–23% HL), wholly scaled belly (vs. naked along preanal median keel), and a dark blotch on nape (vs. absent).
    • Article

      Luminescent vibrios associated with mortality in pond-cultured shrimp penaeus monodon in the Philippines: Species composition 

      LD de la Peña, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & MG Paner - Fish Pathology, 2001 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Heavy mortalities due to luminescent vibriosis have been observed among pond-cultured Penaeus monodon shrimp in the Philippines. The species composition of luminescent Vibrio associated with mortalities was determined. A total of 189 luminescent bacteria isolated from the hepatopancreas of affected shrimps, rearing water and seawater from different shrimp farms in 11 provinces of the Philippines were examined for their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results revealed a varied composition of Vibrio species. The most dominant luminescent Vibrio species was V. harveyi (65.5%) followed by V. logei (7%), Photobacterium sp. (6%) and V. orientalis (1%). Some isolates, based on their characteristics, were identified as V. campbellii (16%), V. mediterranei (3%), V. fluvialis (0.5%), V. cholerae (0.5%) and V. splendidus II (0.5%), which are known as non-luminescent Vibrios. V. harveyi is thought to be the major etiological agent associated with the luminescent vibriosis in pond-cultured P. monodon and its pathogenicity was confirmed through intramuscular injection to shrimp. Experimental infection showed that V. campbellii was also pathogenic to P. monodon.
    • Article

      Major viral and bacterial disease problems in shrimp culture 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Aquaculture Engineering (Philippines), 1998 - Society of Aquaculture Engineers of the Philippines
      Major disease problems particularly viral and bacterial in origin have resulted in significant decline in the production of farmed shrimps worldwide.

      The major diseases of viral and bacterial origins are listed and described. Innovations being applied to prevent and/or minimize their effects are enumerated.

      The paper suggests a broad outlook of shrimp disease by considering not only the etiological causes but also the epidemiological approach. Attempts to produce disease-free fry are still expensive and cannot be applied widely in commercial farms. The aim is to attain sustainable shrimp farming.
    • Conference paper

      Management of fish health in broodstock and larvae of milkfish, sea bass and grouper 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, AC Emata, MN Duray & JD Toledo - In K Main & C Rosenfeld (Eds.), Aquaculture health management strategies for marine fishes : proceedings of a workshop in Honolulu, Hawaii, October 9- 13, 1995, 1996 - The Oceanic Institute
      Historically, reports on the occurrence of disease problems in milkfish, seabass and grouper were mainly on the isolation and identification of etiological agents. Studies on the tolereance of fish to chemotherapeutants were also conducted. Various species of vibrios and gill-infesting parasites have been associated with diseases in all life stages of these fish. Presently, mortalities due to diseases of unknown etiology, environmental failure and nutritional or husbandry shortfalls affect successful fry production in the hatchery. Morphological deformities in hatchery-produced milkfish fry is a major problem to be solved. In seabass fry production, swim-bladder stress syndrome occasionally occurs and results in mass mortalities. In larval grouper culture, the problem of low survival is being addressed through improved husbandry and nutrition. For cage-held broodstock that naturally spawn in captivity, such as milkfish and grouper, the main problem is fouling of net enclosures in the cages. However, for fish that need hormonal manipulation to spawn, such as seabass and snapper, stressful handling procedures during sampling and hormone injection may lead to injuries and scale loss. The damaged areas become focal points for secondary bacterial infection. Future fish health management strategies in these fish should incorporate a holistic approach to include environmental monitoring, nutritional manipulation, immunostimulants and vaccine use, and biological control in addition to pathogen exclusion in the rearing system and the fish.
    • Conference paper

      Microbial diseases in aquaculture: issues and challenges 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In W Reichardt (Ed.), DAAD Conference Proceedings: Challenges of Applied and Environmental Microbiology in Marine Science, 2007 - Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines
      Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants where farming implies some intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. (FAO, 1997). The contribution of aquaculture to global supplies of fish, crustaceans, mollusks and other aquatic animals continues to grow, increasing from 3.9 percent of total production by weight in 1970 to 32.4 percent in 2004 growing more rapidly than all other animal food-producing sectors. Worldwide, aquaculture production has grown at an average rate of 8.8 percent per year since 1970, compared with only 1.2 percent for capture fisheries and 2.8 percent for terrestrial framed meat production systems over the same period (FAO 2006).
    • Article

      Mortalities of pond-cultured juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon, associated with dominance of luminescent vibrios in the rearing environment 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, EM Leaño & MG Paner - Aquaculture, 1998 - Elsevier
      Severe mortalities due to luminescent vibrios occurred in pond-cultured Penaeus monodon juveniles particularly in the first 45 days of culture. Luminescent vibriosis epizootics led to reduced shrimp production due to mortalities and slow growth of affected stocks. Monitoring of bacterial population in the rearing water of several ponds was conducted from the time the ponds were flooded with water until 60 days of culture to understand the course of infection. Results showed that the occurrence of mortalities was preceded by a shift of the bacterial profile of the rearing water in infected ponds, notably the dominance of luminescent vibrios. Comparison of bacterial load in the rearing water and water source (river or open sea) showed elevated luminescent Vibrio counts in the former at 12 days to 3 weeks after initial entry of water. Histopathology of affected shrimps showed the hepatopancreas as the target organ of infection where severe inflammatory responses in the intertubular sinuses were seen.
    • Article

      Mortality in pond-cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon in the Philippines associated with Vibrio harveyi and white spot syndrome virus 

      LD de la Peña, CR Lavilla-Pitogo, A Namikoshi, T Nishizawa, Y Inui & K Muroga - Fish Pathology, 2003 - Japanese Society of Fish Pathology
      Heavy mortalities were observed among pond-cultured Penaeus monodon in the provinces of Bohol, Misamis Occidental, Lanao del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. Vibrio harveyi was isolated purely from the hepatopancreas and lymphoid organs of affected shrimp and histopathological observations indicated a severe bacterial infection in the shrimp. Majority of the samples gave negative results in the one-step PCR for the detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). However, nested PCR produced amplicons specific for WSSV DNA from most of the shrimp tested. These results suggest that shrimp were infected dually with V. harveyi and WSSV, but the major causative agent of the present mortalities was V. harveyi.
    • Book chapter

      Nutritional diseases 

      EC Amar & CR Lavilla-Pitogo - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Nutritional diseases of fish may develop as a result of deficiency (undernutrition), excess (overnutrition), or imbalance (malnutrition) of nutrients present in their food. The disease usually develops gradually because animals have body reserves that make up for nutritional deficiency up to a certain extent. Disease signs develop only when supply of any diet component falls below critical level. When there is too much food, the excess that is converted to fat and deposited in fish tissues and organs, may severely affect physiological functions of the fish.
    • Article

      Physico-chemical characteristics and pathogenicity of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus-like bacterium isolated from eye lesions of Chanos chanos (Forsskal) juveniles 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1991 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      Vibrio parahaemolyticus-like bacteria were isolated from eye lesions of milkfish juveniles. The tolerance of the typical isolate to various temperature, pH and salinity levels was tested. Pathogenicity tests done via both injection and immersion challenge techniques induced high mortalities in milkfish fingerlings. Juveniles challenged by immersion method exhibited a very low mortality rate, but eye lesions were observed and these ranged from various degrees of eye cover opacity, to cataract-like tissue formation around the lens, and the failure of the artificially injured site to heal. The impact of the present observations to the milkfish industry is discussed.