Now showing items 1-12 of 12

    • Book chapter

      Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was conducted to determine the quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in grouper diets, based on their nutrient composition and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD). A total of 56 juveniles were used for the 1st batch of test ingredients (Chilean fish meal, white fish meal, shrimp meal, defatted soyabean oilmeal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal). 54, 72 and 48 juveniles were used for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th batches of test ingredients (squid meal, local meat and bone meal, meat solubles, soya protein concentrates and rice bran; tuna fish meal, imported meat and bone meal, blood meal, maize gluten meal and wheat flour; and poultry feather meal, lupin seed meal and maize germ meal, respectively). Apparent digestibility coefficients were measured in vivo. The apparent digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 37-99%. Squid meal and meat solubles had the highest coefficients, whereas blood meal had the lowest. The APD of all feed ingredients tested were relatively high (79-99%), except for rice bran (43%) and blood meal (15%). ADMD values varied with the levels of fibre and other carbohydrate substances in the feed ingredients. Groupers could utilize dietary protein efficiently regardless of whether it was of animal or plant origin. High APD values were generally obtained in feed ingredients with high protein content. Low digestibility coefficients for feed ingredients could also be attributed to the processing methods used in their preparation.
    • Article

      Apparent digestibility of selected feedstuffs by mud crab, Scylla serrata 

      MR Catacutan, PS Eusebio & Si Teshima - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      A feeding experiment was conducted to determine apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD), crude protein (ACPD), crude fat (ACFD), crude fiber (ACFbD), nitrogen-free extract or NFE (ANFED), and crude ash (AAD) of selected feed ingredients for mud crab, Scylla serrata. The nine feed ingredients were Peruvian fish meal, squid meal, Acetes sp., meat and bone meal, copra meal, wheat flour, rice bran, corn meal, and defatted soybean meal. A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF diet and 30% of the feedstuff) were used with Cr2O3 as external indicator.

      The ADMD of the RF and test diets were high except for diet with meat and bone meal. Crude protein, crude fiber, and ash of feedstuffs were digestible in mud crab. Nutrients in squid meal, corn meal, and defatted soybean meal were digested well (ACFbD>95%; ANFED>92%; AAD>71%) compared with nutrients in the meat and bone meal. The AAD of copra meal, wheat flour, rice bran, and meat and bone meal were similar. The ACFD in carbohydrate-rich plant feedstuffs were significantly higher than that in protein-rich animal feedstuffs. For this species, the relative amounts of dietary protein and NFE in feedstuffs had an effect on the ACFD but not on ADMD.
    • Article

      Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - Aquaculture Research, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for dry matter (ADCdm) and crude protein (ADCcp) of selected feed ingredients were determined in vivo for grouper using passive faeces collection (Guelph System). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF and 30% test ingredient) with 1% Cr2O3 as an inert indicator were used. An RF contained 45% protein, 10% fat and 15.7 kJ g−1 metabolizable energy. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, each contained a test ingredient (white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal), were used in a growth study based on ADCcp of feed ingredients. An RF without Cr2O3 was a control. The ADC values of experimental diets were also determined. In grouper, the ADCdm of white cowpea meal, defatted soybean meal, wheat flour and shrimp meal (74–76%) were significantly lower than that of squid meal (99%), but comparable with those of the fish meals (84–89%). No significant difference was observed between the ADCdm of ipil-ipil leaf meal, rice bran and wheat flour (56–73%). The ADCcp of white cowpea meal and defatted soybean meal were similar to those of the fish meals, squid meal and shrimp meal (94–99%). The ADCcp of wheat flour was comparable with that of ipil-ipil leaf meal (79–83%). Rice bran had the lowest ADCcp value of 43%. Based on specific growth rate (SGR), the growth of fish fed white cowpea meal-based diets was similar to that of the control fish (3.2–3.3% day−1). Also, no significant difference was observed between the ADCdm (68–72%) and ADCcp (88–91%) of white cowpea meal-based diet and the control diet. The results suggest that ADC values can be used as indicators to determine the nutritional value of feed ingredients. White cowpea meal can be incorporated as a protein source in practical diet for grouper at 20.5% of the diet with no adverse effect on growth.
    • Book chapter

      Digestive enzyme activity in developing grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae 

      PS Eusebio, JD Toledo, REP Mamauag & MJG Bernas - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was undertaken to determine the activities of alkaline and acid type proteases [proteinases], α-amylase, lipase [triacylglycerol lipase], trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase [cytosol aminopeptidase], and alkaline and acid phosphatases during larval development of the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The maximum variation in specific activities of alkaline and acid type proteases, α-amylase, lipase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, leucine aminopeptidase, and acid and alkaline phosphatases in the digestive tract of grouper larvae was mostly related to the onset or the end of metamorphosis during larval development.
    • Article

      Effect of dehulling on the nutritive value of some leguminous seeds as protein sources for tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, juveniles 

      PS Eusebio - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of dehulling on the nutritive value of cowpea and rice bean as protein sources for P. monodon juveniles. Diets were prepared by adding legumes to replace 15.6% of the total animal protein requirement. Defatted whole soybean served as the reference protein. Growth, survival rate, and apparent protein digestibility were the biological parameters examined. Dehulling significantly increased (P < 0.05) the apparent protein digestibility of rice bean but not of cowpea. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed among dietary treatments based on growth response and survival of the animals, and no correlation existed between growth and apparent protein digestibility. P. monodon given a dehulled-cowpea diet seemed to perform best while those fed a whole-rice-bean diet tended to register the poorest response. These results indicate that dehulling of legumes was partly responsible for the improvement in their nutritive value.
    • Article

      Evaluation of leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as plant protein sources in diets for juvenile Penaeus indicus 

      PS Eusebio & RM Coloso - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 1998 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      The potential of locally available legumes (white cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, and green mung-bean, Vigna radiata) and leaf meals (papaya, Carica papaya, and cassava, Manihut esculenta) in combination with defatted soybean meal as protein sources was evaluated in juvenile Penaeus indicus. The feedstuffs were included in practical diets for P. indicus, replacing 9% of the protein in the basal diet. Juvenile P. indicus (mean initial weight 0.08±0.01 g) were fed the practical diets for 61 days. Shrimp fed the control diet had the highest weight gain and specific growth rate, which did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from those of shrimp fed white cowpea meal, papaya leaf meal and cassava leaf meal. Survival of the control shrimp was significantly higher (p<0,05) than that of shrimp fed cassava and papaya leaf meals but comparable to that of shrimp fed white cowpea meal. The growth of shrimp given green mungbean meal was comparable to that of shrimp fed papaya leaf meal, however the shrimp fed mungbean meal had the lowest survival.

      The apparent protein digestibility (APD) of white cowpea meal (87%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control (82%) and cassava leaf meal (77%) based diets . However, the APD of the white cowpea meal based diet was comparable to those of the papaya leaf meal and green mungbean meal based diets. Results suggest that, besides digestibility, other factors such as the amino acid balance of the diet and the amount of anti-nutritional factors may influence the growth and survival of P. indicus.
    • Book chapter

      Evaluation of some terrestrial proteins in complete diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      This study was undertaken to determine the nutritive value of some of the more widely available protein sources in the diets for grouper juveniles, based on apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. A series of feeding experiments were conducted to determine the growth performance of grouper juveniles. Test diets were formulated for growth (4 replications/treatment) and digestibility experiments (3 replications/treatment). Each diet contained a test ingredient: white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal (experiment 1); local meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and meat solubles (experiment 2); and imported meal and bone meal, blood meal and maize gluten meal (experiment 3). A feeding trial for each experiment was conducted for 85 days in a flow-through system with filtered and aerated seawater. 10 and 20 juveniles were stocked in each of 60- and 250-litre fibreglass tanks, respectively. White cowpea meal (20.5% incorporation), local (16% incorporation) and imported (19% incorporation) meat and bone meals could partially replace fish meal in the diets for grouper juveniles without affecting their growth. Low ADMD and APD values for the processed feed ingredients (meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and blood meal-based diets) could be associated with the processing methods used in its preparation, which could damage the amino acids and contribute to low nitrogen digestibility. Apparent digestibility coefficients and growth could be used as indicators of the nutritional value of the feed ingredients. However, the availability and optimal balance of amino acids must also be considered.
    • Article

      Nutritional evaluation of various plant protein sources in diets for Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer 

      PS Eusebio & RM Coloso - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2000 - Wiley-Blackwell
      A biological assay was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various leguminous seed meals and leaf meals as dietary protein sources for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. In the growth experiment, fish (initial mean weight ± standard error (SE) of 3.8 ± 0.5 g) were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing test ingredients to replace 13–18% of the diet. The same diet formulations were used in a digestibility experiment, except that 1% Cr2O3 was added as an external indicator. The growth of the control fish was comparable to fish fed leguminous seed meal-based diets, and better than those given leaf meal-based diets. The control diet had the highest apparent protein digestibility (APD) value. No significant differences were observed between the APD of white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), green mungbean (V. radiata) and papaya (Carica papaya) leaf meal-based diets. However, the cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf meal-based diet had the lowest APD value. The present findings suggest that white cowpea and green mungbean meals can be used as protein sources in practical diets to replace 18% of the sea bass diet without affecting their growth.
    • Article

      Occurrence and histopathogenesis of a didymozoid trematode (Gonapodasmius epinepheli) in pond-reared orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, RJG Lester, PS Eusebio, HS Marcial & SAG Pedrajas - Aquaculture, 2001 - Elsevier
      A didymozoid trematode encapsulated in the gills of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides Hamilton, was observed in October 1997 and September 1999 among pond-reared fish in the Philippines. Capsule prevalence was 33% and 18% and mean intensity 2 and 1, respectively. The opaque-white and yellowish capsules were found only on the first gill arch and were attached lengthwise along the posterior surface of the primary gill filaments. When the capsules were opened, long thread-like worms were revealed, which were identified as Gonapodasmius epinepheli Abdul-Salam, Sreelatha and Farah. The parasites were encapsulated between the basement membrane of the epithelium and the efferent artery of the gill filament. The response of the host included mild hyperplasia of the interlamellar epithelium and an increase in the number of mucous cells.
    • Article

      Potential of feed pea (Pisum sativum) meal as a protein source in practical diets for milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) 

      IG Borlongan, PS Eusebio & T Welsh - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the use of feed pea meal as a dietary protein source for juvenile milkfish. Six isonitrogenous (30% crude protein) and isocaloric (16.5 kJ/g) practical diets were formulated. The control diet contained fish meal, soybean meal, meat and bone meal and copra meal as principal protein sources. Feed pea meal was progressively substituted at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of total protein. A leading commercial milkfish feed was also tested as an additional control. The experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of milkfish fingerlings (mean initial weight of 0.42±0.01 g) at 10% body weight/day. Growth performance (expressed as percentage of weight gain and SGR), survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of milkfish fed diets with up to 10% substitution of the dietary protein with feed pea meal were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to fish fed the control diet. Replacement with feed pea meal at 15% and higher levels led to milkfish fed these diets showing a significantly lower growth response compared to fish fed with the control without any feed pea meal. Nevertheless, it was observed that milkfish fed diets with up to 20% of total dietary protein substitution with feed pea meal showed better growth rates and feed conversion ratios than the commercial feed control. Whole body composition (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, nitrogen-free extracts and ash content) of milkfish fed the various test diets was not significantly different. Apparent digestibility coefficients of feed pea meal and experimental diets in milkfish were also determined. Results indicate that feed pea meal is an acceptable protein source and can replace up to 20% of the total dietary protein in milkfish diets.
    • Article

      Proteolytic enzyme activity of juvenile Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), is increased with protein intake 

      PS Eusebio & RM Coloso - Aquaculture Research, 2002 - Blackwell Publishing
      The effect of high dietary protein intake on proteolytic enzyme activity of feeding juvenile Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) was studied. Ninety fish [mean body weight ± standard error (SE) 304.62 ± 34.84 g] were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, each with three replicates. In treatment 1, fish were fed by-catch (Thunnus albacares) and in treatment 2, a formulated diet containing 50% protein. Proteolytic enzyme activity was determined in pyloric caecae and intestine at day 0, 7, 15, and 30. Initial proteolytic enzyme activity in sea bass ranged from 174 to 232 azocasein units (UAC.) per mg of protein. After 7 days there was no significant difference in proteolytic enzyme activity of fish fed the two diets. However, a marked increase was observed in fish fed the formulated diet at day 15. After 30 days, the proteolytic enzyme activity in fish fed the formulated diet was threefold higher than that in fish fed the by-catch diet. Fish fed the formulated diet had significantly higher total protein intake at day 7 than did fish fed by-catch. Thereafter, a twofold weekly increase in the total protein intake was observed in both fish fed the by-catch and formulated diets until day 30. These results suggest that a high dietary protein intake induces increased proteolytic enzyme activity in Asian sea bass.
    • Article

      Utilization of feed pea, Pisum sativum, meal as protein source in practical diets for juvenile shrimp, Penaeus monodon 

      MN Bautista-Teruel, PS Eusebio & TP Welsh - Aquaculture, 2003 - Elsevier
      The potential of feed pea meal as an alternative protein source to soybean meal in practical diets for the juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was assessed in several experiments. Six isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 40% protein. Protein from the feed pea meal replaced 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the protein from defatted soybean meal in the diets. These values were equivalent to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, respectively, of the total protein in the diet. A negative control with no protein sources was added to the treatments. Twelve shrimp post-larvae with an average weight of 0.02±0.01 g were randomly assigned in thirty-five 60-l oval tanks equipped with a flow-through seawater system. The shrimp were fed the formulated diets at a daily feeding rate of 20–25% body weight for 90 days in five replicate samples. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of shrimp fed diets 0 up to the highest level of replacement. Weight gain of shrimp fed the negative control was, however, significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to the rest of the treatments. Specific growth rates (SGR) of shrimp showed likewise no significant differences among treatments except for the negative control. Survival of shrimp for all treatments ranged between 75% and 100%. The apparent dry matter (ADMD) and protein (APD) digestibilities of the dry feed pea in P. monodon were high at 73.38±4.98 and 92.74±2.62, respectively. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter and protein for the feed pea meal-based diets increased with increasing level of feed pea replacement. There were no significant differences in whole body composition (dry matter, protein, lipid, ash, fiber) of shrimp fed the various diets with feed pea replacement. Pellet water stability was similar for all diets even up to the highest level of replacement. The results have demonstrated that feed pea meal has a very good potential as a substitute protein source up to 100% of the protein from defatted soybean meal, which is equivalent to 25% of the total protein in the diet. An inclusion level of up to 42% in the juvenile shrimp P. monodon practical diet did not manifest any adverse effects on growth, feed intake, FCR, survival, body composition, and digestibility coefficients for dry matter and protein of the shrimp.