Now showing items 1-18 of 18

    • Article

      Development and characterization of nine novel microsatellite markers for the milkfish Chanos chanos 

      BS Santos, MRR Romana-Eguia, ZU Basiao & M Ikeda - Conservation Genetics Resources, 2015 - Springer Verlag
      The milkfish, Chanos chanos, is an important aquaculture resource in Southeast Asia. Using NGS data, 72 microsatellite markers were developed. PCR product confirmation using agarose gel electrophoresis allowed the identification of 24 utilizable markers. Milkfish samples (n = 48) from a hatchery stock in Palawan, Philippines were analyzed for genetic variability at the aforementioned 24 loci. Consequently, nine of these microsatellite loci were noted to have high success rate in amplification, exhibited polymorphism with 19 maximum number of alleles and no null alleles. These are the first microsatellite markers to be developed and characterized for C. chanos that will efficiently enable genetic stock delineation and monitoring as well as marker-aided genetic improvement research.
    • Article

      Effects of initial stocking size on the growth of Nile tilapia fingerlings in cages without supplemental feed in Laguna Lake, Philippines 

      ZU Basiao - Natural and Applied Science Bulletin, 1988 - University of the Philippines
      Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were stocked at three different initial size ranges of 1-3, 7-12 and 20-30 g in fixed net cages in Laguna Lake, Philippines. These were reared without supplemental feed for 120 days. Fingerlings with the biggest initial size at stocking were the most efficient in terms of average weight gain, average final fish weight and total fish production.
    • Article

      A farmer-oriented Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., breed improvement in the Philippines 

      ZU Basiao, AL Arago & RW Doyle - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing
      Opportunities for developing small-scale tilapia industry in the Philippines is hampered by the shortage of good-quality seeds and broodstock. Most small-scale farmers are dependent on distribution centres for improved tilapia seeds that are expensive and not sufficient to meet market demands. An option would be for farmers to develop their own tilapia breeds using simple procedures within their technical and financial resources. This option will also help sustain the diversity of locally adapted domestic stocks of tilapia. The Philippine tilapia production of ~ 122 316 MT can be increased by ensuring a stable supply of quality seeds and transferring suitable technology to fish farmers. The study was carried out in a tilapia hatchery/nursery pond in the Philippines to explore the potential for a farmer-based research on tilapia breed improvement using relatively simple artificial selection procedures.

      One generation of size-specific mass selection based on the early culling of large fry (collimation procedure) was applied on a Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus L., in net cages set in a small earthen pond. Two episodes of directional selection were performed after initial removal of large fry at 21 days. Selection of parents and progeny testing were conducted in hapa and B-net cages set in earthen ponds. The selection resulted in a significant response of 8% for standard length and 29% for weight relative to the control. The crude estimates of realized heritability is ~ 16% for standard length and ~26% for weight comparable with similar studies conducted by other workers.
    • Article

      Genetic assessment of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) stocks based on novel short tandem repeats for marker-aided broodstock management 

      MRR Romana-Eguia, BS Santos, M Ikeda, ZU Basiao & A Kijima - Aquaculture Research, 2018 - John Wiley and Sons
      Milkfish hatchery broodstock are either from on-grown wild-caught or hatchery-produced fry/juveniles. To determine if a marker-assisted management scheme can be formulated for improved milkfish hatchery production, milkfish stocks were genetically characterized using nine novel short tandem repeats or microsatellites. Eight wild-bred Philippine stocks (CLA, CUR, CAM, SIH, SBH-I1, HH, PAL and ZH-P0), four hatchery-bred stocks (SBH-I2, SBH-D, BoH and ZH-F1), two farm stocks of known mixed lineages (SPH and BDH) and one Indonesian hatchery-bred stock (WJH) were assessed. WJH was included since milkfish fingerlings from Indonesia reared in Philippine farms could be developed into future broodstock. Mean allelic richness (Ar) was highest in wild-bred stocks (9.5) and lowest in hatchery-bred spawners (9.1). Mean expected heterozygosities (He) were relatively similar in all stocks with wild-bred stocks slightly higher (0.67) than the others. An analysis of molecular variance indicated significant yet low genetic differentiation among stocks (FST = 0.013; p = .000) where variation (98.6%) was explained by intra-stock differences. In some of the domesticated stocks, reductions in mean allelic richness were observed in first generation hatchery broodstock (e.g. ZH-F1; Ar = 8.3), compared with their founder stock (e.g. ZH-P0; Ar = 9.4). The Indonesian stock was similar to local wild-bred stocks based on genetic variability indices; thus, it might be likely that the local stocks’ fitness traits could be comparable with the imported milkfish stock which has been perceived to be better. The quality of locally available farmed milkfish and prospects of formulating a broodstock management scheme for the production of good quality milkfish seedstock are herewith discussed.
    • Article

      Genetic changes during mass selection for growth in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), assessed by microsatellites 

      MRR Romana-Eguia, M Ikeda, ZU Basiao & N Taniguchi - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing
      Two control (C1 or first control generation, and C4 or fourth control generation) and three selected (S1 or first selected generation, S2 or second selected generation, S4 or fourth selected generation) stocks of Chitralada Nile tilapia were analysed for microsatellite variation to determine the effect of size-specific mass selection on genetic variability. Genetic variation based on five microsatellite loci (UNH123, UNH147, UNH172, UNH222 and UNH216) showed a slightly higher allelic diversity in the selected stocks (7.4–10 alleles) than in the control stocks (6.8–8.8 alleles). Apparent reductions in the mean number of alleles and He values were noted in successive generations of both control and selected lines. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium because of an excess of homozygotes indicated inbreeding in all control and selected stocks. Although estimated inbreeding levels were not significantly different among selected and control lines based on Welch's t-tests, the increase in the degree of inbreeding within the selected line was higher (107.9%) than the control line (64.2%) after four generations. The implications of these results on the management and conservation of genetic diversity in improved breeds are discussed, while the importance of monitoring and minimizing inbreeding are likewise emphasized.
    • Article

      Genetic diversity in farmed Asian Nile and red hybrid tilapia stocks evaluated from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis 

      MRR Romana-Eguia, M Ikeda, ZU Basiao & N Taniguchi - Aquaculture, 2004 - Elsevier
      We analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA-RFLP) in two domesticated (NIFI and Israel) and four genetically improved (GIFT, GMT, FAC-selected and SEAFDEC-selected) Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as five red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus) stocks (BFS, FACred, NIFIred, HL, and PF) farmed in Asia. Microsatellite variation at five loci (UNH216, UNH172, UNH123, UNH147, UNH222) was more informative in characterizing stock differences than the mtDNA-RFLP markers that were based only on 14 restriction morphs. Contemporary microsatellite data showed that GIFT Nile tilapia had the highest mean expected heterozygosity (H>e=0.813), while GMT had the lowest (He=0.666). The unselected NIFI stock and SEAFDEC-selected were genetically similar, while GMT differed significantly from the other Nile tilapia stocks. Among the red tilapias, NIFIred had the highest He (0.715), while BFS had the lowest variability (He=0.567). The Taiwanese red tilapia HL and Thai NIFIred were genetically similar. Except for NIFI, most of the Nile and red tilapia stocks exhibited remarkably significant homozygote excess relative to Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), suggesting some degree of inbreeding. Asian Nile tilapias were more genetically diverse (pooled He=0.791; mtDNA nucleotide divergence value dA=0.009) than the red tilapias (pooled He=0.697; mean dA=0.004). This slight divergence between the Nile and red tilapias was also seen in the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; FCT=0.0018) and in genetic distance and nucleotide divergence dendrograms. However, the AMOVA revealed that the greater percentage of variation (99.33%) in the total genetic diversity of the surveyed stocks is principally due to differences at the individual level and not between nor within groups. The significance of these results is that they reflect and lead to new inferences regarding the selective breeding and culture methods used in managing these farmed stocks.
    • Conference paper

      Growth and survival of Nile tilapia fingerlings in net cages without supplemental feed in Laguna Lake, Philippines 

      Z Basiao & A San Antonio - In JL Maclean, LB Dizon & LV Hosillos (Eds.), The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-31 May 1986, Manila, Philippines, 1986 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were stocked at densities of 50, 100, 150 and 200 fish/m super(2) in fixed net cages in Laguna Lake, Philippines. These were reared without supplemental feed on 1 April-30 July 1980, 5 August-3 December 1980, and 19 December 1980-19 April 1981. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, chloride level and pH for the three periods were measured outside the net cages. Growth rates were highest at 50 and 100 fish/m super(2) reared between April and July when phytoplankton biomass was high with a peak production observed in June (65.5 g/m super(2)), and zooplankton biomass ranged from 9.3 to 32.68 g/m super(2). Under these conditions, fish initially weighing 1.6-1.7 g grew to a marketable size of 106-124 g in four months. Those stocked at 150 and 200 fish/m super(2) had lower weights but still weighed over 80 g. None of those in the other two rearing periods exceeded 50 g after four months. Survival and fish yield during April-July were also higher than for those reared during the other periods.
    • Article

      Growth comparison of Asian Nile and red tilapia strains in controlled and uncontrolled farm conditions 

      MRR Romana-Eguia, M Ikeda, ZU Basiao & N Taniguchi - Aquaculture International, 2010 - European Aquaculture Society
      Growth of several genetically improved Nile tilapia (GIFT or Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia, FaST or Freshwater Aquaculture Center Selected Tilapia, SEAFDEC-selected) and domesticated red tilapia (BFS or Binangonan Freshwater Station, NIFI-red or National Inland Fisheries Institute red, HL or Hacienda Luisita) stocks were compared in controlled (tank) and uncontrolled farm conditions (lake-based cages) with unselected NIFI or Chitralada Nile tilapia as control. Specific growth rate differed significantly (P = 0.009) in tank-reared Nile tilapia stocks where GIFT grew best at 1.358%/day followed by FaST (1.307%/day), control stock NIFI (1.257%/day) and SEAFDEC-selected (1.202%/day). Genetic effect explained 84.4% of the variance in growth of Nile tilapia in tanks. Although Nile tilapia growth in cages followed the same trend where GIFT grew best at 1.570%/day, no significant stock differences (P = 0.479) were noted. Meanwhile, red tilapia reared in either tanks or cages showed no significant stock differences in terms of growth. However, survival of the red tilapia stocks in cages differed significantly with HL having the highest percentage survival at 93.3%. The different growth responses of the Nile tilapia stocks especially under controlled (tank) farm conditions were largely due to genetic factors (stock differences).Under uncontrolled farm conditions, environmental factors were generally observed to have also affected the survival and to some extent, the growth of Asian Nile and red tilapia stocks.
    • Article

      Growth response of Nile tilapia fry to salinity stress in the presence of an ‘internal reference’ fish 

      ZU Basiao, RV Eguia & RW Doyle - Aquaculture Research, 2005 - Blackwell Publishing
      Growth of three strains of Oreochromis niloticus L. fry exposed to salinity stress in the presence of an internal reference fish were compared. The Central Luzon State University (CLSU) strain was obtained from the Freshwater Aquaculture Center, CLSU, Philippines. The ISRAEL strain was acquired from the Philippine government's Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources National Freshwater Fisheries Technology Center (BFAR-NFFTC), Munoz, Nueva Ecija. The National Inland Fisheries Institute (NIFI) strain was obtained from the NIFI, Bangkok, Thailand. Eight to nine full-sib families (replicates) per strain were split into two groups. One group was grown in freshwater for 2 weeks, acclimated to 32 ppt and reared for 2 weeks and finally grown in freshwater for another 2 weeks. Another group was contemporaneously grown in freshwater polyethylene tanks for 6 weeks. Each replicate family included a size-matched internal reference population of red tilapia strain. Two-way analysis of variance (anova) revealed no significant strain differences (P=0.081; r2=0.106). However, analysis of covariance with the internal reference strain used as a covariate showed significant (P=0.049; r2=0.638) strain effects on specific growth (based on standard length measurements). The ISRAEL strain showed consistently better growth rate in both saline and freshwater environments than the NIFI and CLSU strains. We estimated the statistical power of the two-way anova (ϕ=√(k′−1)(factor MS−s2)/(k′s>2); Zar 1984) to be ∼0.30. There was a 70% probability of a Type II error and no true difference in the growth of the three strains was detected. The use of internal reference strain as a covariate improved the r2 from 0.106 to 0.638 and increased the efficiency of the test in detecting a true difference. Other strain comparison studies in our laboratory at the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department showed that the ISRAEL strain shows better growth than the NIFI and CLSU strains in a crowding stress tolerance experiment, when fed only with rice bran and under restrictive feeding regimes.
    • Article

      An investigation of enzyme and other protein polymorphisms in Japanese stocks of the tilapias Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii 

      ZU Basiao & N Taniguchi - Aquaculture, 1984 - Elsevier
      Samples of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii were collected from the hatcheries of Osaka Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station and Shiga Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, Japan, respectively. The samples were used for screening polymorphisms in 13 enzymes, skeletal muscle proteins and hemoglobins by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Among 35 loci examined, 12 loci for the 10 enzymes, sarcoplasmic protein and hemoglobins were polymorphic in O. niloticus and 2 loci for 2 enzymes were polymorphic in T. zillii. The observed numbers of phenotypes for respective loci agreed well with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The genetic basis for each polymorphism is discussed. This investigation provides basis information on the status of these tilapias in Japan.
    • Article

      Meristic and morphometric variation in the silver perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), from three lakes in the Philippines 

      JP Quilang, ZU Basiao, RC Pagulayan, RR Roderos & EB Barrios - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2007 - Blackwell Publishing
      A number of researchers have applied multivariate methods to elucidate the population structure of fishes. In this study, we also used multivariate techniques to examine meristic and morphological variations in the silver perch, Leiopotherapon plumbeus (Kner, 1864), from three Philippine lakes, namely, Laguna de Bay, Sampaloc Lake, and Taal Lake. We also aimed to determine whether or not there are meristic and morphological differences among the populations of silver perch from the three lakes, considering that this fish species was introduced from Laguna de Bay into Sampaloc Lake and Taal Lake in the late 1950s and early 1970s, respectively. A total of 710 specimens from four different sites were used in the study: 155 each from Binangonan and Tanay areas of Laguna de Bay and 200 each from Sampaloc Lake and Taal Lake. Based on analysis of variance, eight meristic and 26 transformed morphometric characters were selected for subsequent analyses. Nineteen (19) principal components extracted from the 34 significant variables accounted for 82.3% of the variation in the original variables. Factor analysis using varimax rotation produced four factors: factor 1 was dominated by fin measurements while the highest loadings for factor 2 were gill raker counts. Factors 3 and 4 were dominated by various body and head measurements. Cluster analysis showed specimens from Sampaloc Lake and Taal Lake in one group, while majority of the specimens from Binangonan and Tanay are in another cluster. This suggests a closer morphological similarity between specimens from Sampaloc and Taal. Discriminant analysis gave relatively high correct classification rates (76.13–95.50%). Lower gill raker count was the most discriminating variable. Since both the silver perch from Sampaloc Lake and Taal Lake were introduced from Laguna de Bay, the observed clustering and morphological variation could be attributed to similarities and differences in the lake environments. Laguna de Bay is a shallow eutrophic lake, while Sampaloc Lake and Taal Lake are deep lakes. Further studies, however, are needed to determine which of the myriad of biological and/or physico–chemical factors might have the greatest influence on the observed morphological divergence between the source population and transplanted populations that we found in our study.
    • Book

      Pagpapaanak o pagpaparami ng tilapya 

      RV Eguia, MRR Eguia & ZU Basiao - 1996 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 23
      The manual discusses spawning tilapia (Oreochromis spp) in concrete tank hatcheries, hapa hatcheries in ponds and in lakes in the Philippines. Also included in the manual are a list of agencies involved in tilapia research, a glossary of technical terms, and useful references.
    • Conference paper

      Potential genetic impacts of hatchery-based resource enhancement 

      ZU Basiao - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The global population according to the United States Census Bureau has reached 7 billion as of October 2013. The continuous growth in human population will continue to put tremendous pressure on food production. The demand for fish as source of good protein is no exception. In 2011 total capture fisheries supplied 90.4 million tons of food and total aquaculture provided 63.6 million tons. While aquaculture production has increased dramatically, more than 50% of fishery production still depends on capture fisheries. Overexploitation of wild fish stocks has become one of the biggest problems in global fisheries. Stock enhancement has become a potential viable strategy for marine fisheries in danger of collapse. With the tremendous progress made in the breeding and larval rearing techniques of marine species, hatchery-based stock enhancement is now operated in many stock enhancement programs. However, many questions are raised in the use of hatchery-reared fish in stock enhancement. This paper will discuss genetic considerations in stock enhancement in developing countries.
    • Conference paper

      Research on freshwater fishes 

      CB Santiago, ZU Basiao & JD Tan-Fermin - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Studies on tilapias focused on the refinement of strain comparison methods, refinement and pilot-testing of broodstock improvement procedure, selective breeding and evaluation of red tilapias, genetic variability determination in hatchery-bred tilapia and the development of criteria for tilapia fingerling quality assessment.

      On carps, feeding of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to enhance reproductive performance was done and stunting was applied as a technique in broodstock development. Studies on the tolerance of bighead carp fry to low salinities were conducted. Free-living nematodes were tested as alternative larval food. The culture potential of grass carp in lake-based cages was also determined.

      Research on the native catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) focused on endocrine studies during the final stages of maturation. Hatchery techniques were refined by identification of factors that increase fry production. Practical diets were developed for broodstock, hatchery, nursery and grow-out phases. A collaborative project on the ecological impact of African catfish (C. gariepinus) introduction in natural waters was undertaken.

      The occurrence of EUS (epizootic ulcerative syndrome) among wild fishes in Laguna Lake decreases the marketability of both wild and cultured fishes from the lake. Hence, the bacteria and virus associated with EUS and their virulence, modes of disease transmission, developmental stages of dermal lesions and hematological changes in severely affected fish were studied.

      Laguna Lake, where fish catch and aquaculture production contribute significantly to the country s total freshwater fish production, has been the focus of extensive ecological research in collaboration with other local and foreign research and academic institutions.
    • Article

      Selective diversification of aquaculture stocks: A proposal for economically sustainable genetic conservation 

      RW Doyle, NL Shackel, Z Basiao, S Uraiwan, T Matricia & AJ Talbot - Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1991 - NRC Research Press
      The genetic diversity of aquaculture stocks can be maintained, and their genetic impact on wild stocks minimized, by breeding programmes that deliberately generate genetic diversity. Current animal breeding practices are likely to reduce the diversity of domestic stocks if they are extended to aquaculture. It is proposed that national breeding programmes for aquaculture should, instead, try to develop numerous breeds specially adapted to local environments and aquaculture systems. An economic model is presented of decision-making by individual farmers who, in choosing which breed to produce, determine the "fitness" of the breeds in a meta-population that includes all breeds. As long as strong genotype-environment interaction for production traits is maintained by artificial selection, the economic self-interest of farmers should ensure the stability of genetic polymorphisms among breeds. Genetic variation would be conserved (in the among-breed component of genetic diversity) but not the primordial distribution of gene and genotype frequencies. Economic benefits to farmers, plus a high return on investment at the national or supra-national level, makes breed diversification an attractive conservation strategy even though it is admittedly a compromise from a purely genetic viewpoint.
    • Article

      A statistical power analysis of the 'internal reference' technique for comparing growth and growth depensation of tilapia strains 

      ZU Basiao, RW Doyle & AL Arago - Journal of Fish Biology, 1996 - Wiley-Blackwell
      Experiments were conducted to compare the growth and growth compensation of three strains of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. Ten full sib families (10 replicates) per strain were split and grown under crowded and uncrowded conditions for 3 weeks (the treatment). Both treatments were then grown an additional 12 weeks under less crowded conditions (the compensation). Standard length measurements were made at the end of crowding and the end of compensation. Each replicate included a size-matched control population of a fourth (red) reference strain. ANCOVA with the reference strain used as a cofactor revealed significant strain effects on specific growth throughout the experiment. The reference strain removed most of the random among-replicate error variance as shown by an increase of r 2 from 0.06 to 0.91 when it was included in the statistical models. If the reference fish had not been used, approximately 450 replicate families would have been needed to achieve the sensitivity of the present experiment (a difference of 7% among strains significant at P=0.05). We conclude that the CLSU strain grows significantly more slowly than the Israel and NIFI strains under the experimental conditions, that the crowding effect was essentially eliminated after 12 weeks of compensation, and that the reference strain greatly improved the resolution of the strain-testing experiment.
    • Article

      Test of size-specific mass selection for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., cage farming in the Philippines 

      ZU Basiao & RW Doyle - Aquaculture Research, 1999 - John Wiley and Sons
      One generation of mass selection based on the collimation procedure (early culling of large fry) was applied on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., in net cages set in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. The objective was to test the effectiveness of a low-cost, small-scale broodstock improvement procedure in this culture environment. Directional selection was performed in two steps after initial removal of large fry at 21 days. Selection of parents and testing of the offspring were also conducted in hapa net cages set up in Laguna de Bay. The selection resulted in a significant positive response of 3% relative to the control, which represents a projected 34% gain over 5 years in Laguna cage culture. The realized heritability is approximately 16%.
    • Conference paper

      Tilapia, carp and catfish 

      ZU Basiao - In F Lacanilao, RM Coloso & GF Quinitio (Eds.), Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Prospects for Seafarming and Searanching; 19-23 August 1991; Iloilo City, Philippines., 1994 - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department
      Research activities on tilapia focused on Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia. Experiments include developing new experimental and statistical procedures for strain evaluation, development of a stable reference strain, development of a high-yield red tilapia strain through introgressive hybridization, comparison of fish growth in different environments relevant to aquaculture, development of an index for routine monitoring of salinity tolerance of existing tilapia strains/experimental stocks, evaluation of nutritional requirements of red tilapia, and determination of heavy metal contents of tilapia in Laguna de Bay, Luzon, Philippines. Research on carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) were focused on improvement of methods for induced spawning, development of seed production techniques, and nutritional requirement of bighead carp fry and broodstock.

      Research on carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and catfish (Clarias macrocephalus) were focused on improvement of methods for induced spawning, development of seed production techniques, and nutritional requirement of bighead carp fry and broodstock.