Browsing by Author "Quinitio, Emilia T."
BookET Quinitio, FD Parado-Estepa & JJ dela Cruz-Huervana - 2018 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 34This manual includes the biology of crab (Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica, and S. olivacea), and describes principles and procedures for spawning the mature crabs and rearing the zoea to ‘fly’ size crabs. It focuses on the hatchery rearing of S. serrata as the farming of this species is more economically viable than the two other species. The techniques may be modified depending on the conditions or problems encountered in a specific site.
Morphological deformities in mud crab Scylla serrata juveniles exposed to antibiotics during the larval stage The effects of antibiotics on the external deformities, growth and survival of mud crab Scylla serrata larvae and juveniles were determined. Zoeae were exposed to oxytetracycline (OTC) (0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12 mg L-1) and furazolidone (FZD) (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg L-1) in the first and second experiments, respectively, until the late megalopa. The crab instars were grown in nursery tanks for 1 month. Larvae survived until megalopa only at 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 OTC or 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD. These four concentrations were run simultaneously in another experiment. Morphological deformities in zoea 5 were bent dorsal, rostral and furcal spines. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) on the deformities of zoea 5 in 3.0 and 6.0 mg L-1 OTC and 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher survival and faster growth were attained in 3.0 mg L-1 OTC and 0.5 mg L-1 FZD. Deformities observed in juveniles were fused frontal and lateral spines, asymmetrical and depressed tip of abdominal flap and gap between sternites. High percentage occurrence of deformities was observed in the 6.0 mg L-1 OTC and 1.0 mg L-1 FZD in the first and third experiments, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) observed in the survival of juveniles in OTC and FZD treatments. However, growth was significantly (P < 0.05) faster in lower concentrations of the two antibiotics. The study shows the effects of OTC and FZD in the morphology of mud crab. Therefore, there is a need to eliminate the use of antibiotics and find alternatives.
ArticleStarvation and exposure to formalin were investigated as possible stress tests for evaluating the quality of mud crab, Scylla serrata, larvae. For the starvation stress test, newly hatched zoeae stocked in 150-ml containers were either starved or fed rotifers. Similarly, newly hatched zoeae were stocked in containers with seawater of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 40 mg/L formalin for the formalin stress test. The zoeae from the same batches were used for seed production to monitor their performance and validate the results of stress tests. Starvation was found to be unsuitable for larval quality evaluation. However, the impact of initial food deprivation on the newly hatched larvae indicates that feeding immediately after hatching is necessary for mud crab larvae. Exposure of larvae to 40 mg/L formalin for 3 hr appeared to be a reliable and practical method for larval quality assessment as the survival of larvae in the mass production tanks validated the classification of good and poor quality batches in the stress tests. On this basis, a hatchery operator can decide which batch should be cultured further. Finally, there appears to be a link between the quality of larvae and the performance at the megalopa and early juvenile crabs.
Conference paperET Quinitio - In ET Quinitio, FDP Estepa, YC Thampi Sam Raj & A Mandal (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Seminar-Workshop on Mud Crab Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 10-12 April 2013, Tamil Nadu, India, 2015 - Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Aquaculture (MPEDA)Mud crab farming has long been established in the Philippines. Scylla serrata, S. tranquebarica and S. olivacea are the common species found in the Philippines. S. serrata is the preferred species for farming by crab growers. The total production of mud crab from aquaculture was estimated at 13,720 valued at US$77,025,000 and 14,437 tons valued at US$86,511,000 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The sources of crab seeds for farming are from the wild and in recent years, from the hatchery although in small percentage. The overexploitation of mud crabs and habitat losses have resulted in both reduced landings and mean capture size. To stem the wild harvest, the provincial and municipal government along with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources have introduced ordinances that prohibit the gathering and selling of crablets (≤ 3 cm) outside the municipality of origin. This resulted to increased acceptability of hatchery-reared crabs by crab growers. Basic technologies in all phases of culture (hatchery, nursery and grow-out) have been developed. However, there are still several issues that need to be addressed. In the hatchery phase, one of the major causes of low survival are the Molt Death Syndrome in which zoea 5 has difficulty molting to megalopa and diseases due to bacterial and fungal infection in eggs and larvae. The use of antibiotics as treatment for Vibrio spp. has proven to improve larval survival. However, the use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistant strains of bacteria and abnormalities that become apparent at the juvenile stage. In the nursery phase, economic losses have been attributed to cannibalism. Providing sufficient food and shelters, reducing stocking density, size grading and removal or trimming of claws are the common strategies used to mitigate the high level of cannibalism. Recent findings showed that incorporating tryptophan in the diet can reduce the aggressive behavior of crabs. In the grow-out phase, culture of juvenile crabs to market size with one or two more commodities in earthen brackishwater ponds is the most prevalent practice. Due to the cannibalistic nature of mud crab, polyculture (usually with milkfish and shrimp) pond is carried out. Stocking density of each commodity varies with the size and the number of seed stock available and the abundance of natural food growth in the pond. Culture period ranges from 4-5 months. Monoculture of crabs is usually done for short term culture as in fattening in various systems. Mud crab culture is also integrated with the existing mangroves. Formulated diets have been verified in commercial grow-out ponds and showed promising results. Mud crabs are commonly fed with low value fish, molluscs and other unprocessed natural foods. Mortality in mud crabs in grow-out phase is oftentimes due to the white spot syndrome virus. The domestication of S. serrata has been done at SEAFDEC/AQD. The duration from spawning of the base population to F1 broodstock size was 10-14 months and from F1 to F2 was 11-12 months. Selective breeding of S. serrata is currently being done. The results serve as guide to understand and eliminate the obstacles to broodstock management and seed production. Recently, The Department of Science and Technology has funded the National Mud Crab Science and Technology Program being implemented by SEAFDEC/AQD and University of the Philippines Visayas to refine the existing technologies in all phases of culture and to aggressively promote the establishment of several mud crab hatcheries and nurseries in the Philippines. The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources is also implementing the Philippine National Aquasilviculture Program, which includes the rehabilitation of mangrove forests and culture of commercially important aquatic animals including mud crab in established mangrove areas. On-site training on all phases of culture of mud crab has also been done by SEAFDEC/AQD not only in the Philippines but also in other countries like Brunei, Myanmar, India and Timor Leste. With the establishment of several hatcheries and nurseries, there will be sufficient seed stock supply for farming, thereby decreasing the dependence on wild stock.