Now showing items 1-4 of 4

    • Conference paper

      Emergency preparedness and contingency plans to aquatic animal disease emergencies 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Emergency preparedness is the ability to respond effectively and in a timely fashion to aquatic animal disease emergencies (e.g. disease outbreaks, mass mortalities). It is a key element of a National Strategy on Aquatic Animal Health and an important consideration of the Progressive Management Pathway for improving Aquaculture Biosecurity.

      The important principles, requirements and elements and components of emergency prepareness and contingency plans are briefly described. The emergency preparedness response system audit is also presented as contingency planning arrangements that can provide useful insights and guidance in improving response action to disease emergencies.

      The paper concludes that many important lessons and insights learned from dealing with disease epizootics in the early 2000 remains valid after more than two decades when the aquaculture sector continues to be plagued with emerging diseases. Past lessons and more recent experiences demonstrated the value of rapid response, reporting/notification by competent authorities, continuous development of knowledge base and capacities in diagnostics, epidemiology, risk analysis, advanced financial planning and the important roles of governments and producer sectors in co-managing disease outbreak events as they both remain the critical entities responsible for launching rapid response.

      Skills and knowledge need to be passed on to locals as they are in the frontline of any disease emergency. Share key lessons from experiences by state and non-state actors (producer and academic sectors and other important players in the value chain), the international players that launch emergency responses, disease investigations and field situation assessments as well as financial entities that support these actions need to be continued. However, we also need to do - a stock taking exercise to evaluate what worked, what did not work, what resources are needed and to understand what are the new drivers for aquatic animal disease emergence in order to move forward with the right and timely response actions to disease emergencies in aquaculture.

      Key questions remain: Are we prepared for the next outbreak/mortality event? What are the minimum preparedness and advance preparedness actions needed?
    • Conference paper

      Risk analysis in aquaculture 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The information presented in this paper were taken from several key FAO documents. The objective is to continuously raise awareness about the concept of risk analysis and its application to the aquaculture sector.

      The paper provides information in response to several key risk questions, e.g.: (1) what is risk versus hazard, (2) what is risk analysis, (3) who uses risk analysis, (4) why do countries need to be able to use risk analysis? An overview of the risks in aquaculture is also provided in terms of the process and approaches; and the different risk sectors in aquaculture.

      The paper concludes with some key points and challenges. Risk analysis is a decisionmaking tool that contributes to protecting national health and welfare. It can also contribute to sustainable aquaculture and the success of individual aquaculture businesses and operations. Risk analysis does not stand alone - it supports and is supported by other components of a National Strategy on Aquatic Animal Health. A basic strength of the risk analysis process is its flexibility - it is adaptable to almost any sector/system where risk and uncertainty occur.

      Countries will often be confronted with a lack of scientific information, both quality and quantity, to support the risk analysis process. Nevertheless, governments must often act under these uncertainties as well as make decisions in the face of a great deal of complexity, significant variability, and multiple management goals.
    • Conference paper

      Sustaining aquaculture by developing human capacity and enhancing opportunities for women 

      MJ Williams, R Agbayani, R Bhujel, MG Bondad-Reantaso, C Brugère, PS Choo, J Dhont, A Galmiche-Tejeda, K Ghulam, K Kusakabe, D Little, MC Nandeesha, P Sorgeloos, N Weeratunge, S Williams & P Xu - In RP Subasinghe, JR Arthur, DM Bartley, SS De Silva, M Halwart, N Hishamunda, CV Mohan & P Sorgeloos (Eds.), Farming the Waters for People and Food. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Phuket, Thailand, 22-25 September 2010, 2012 - FAO; NACA
      People are at the heart of sustaining aquaculture. Development of human capacity and gender, therefore, is an important human dimension. Human capacity development (HCD) was a major thrust of the 2000 Bangkok Declaration and Strategy, but gender was not addressed. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation's (FAO) Strategic Framework for Human Capacity Development (HCD) emphasized building human capacity in a coherent fashion at four levels - in individuals, organizations, sectors/networks and in the overall enabling environment. Although strategic HCD in aquaculture has not received attention, substantial HCD has occurred in aquaculture education and training. Aquaculture departments in universities, aquaculture research institutes, networks and professional societies all include training as central activities.

      Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women's work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid. Most aquaculture development projects are not gender sensitive, and aquaculture success stories often do not report gender dimensions; projects can fail if their designs do not include gender.

      Lacking gender-disaggregated data on participation rates and trends in education, we conducted a preliminary survey of aquaculture tertiary institutes in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. The percentage of female graduates in aquaculture increased considerably over the last four decades, from zero or low numbers in the 1970s to recent rates of around 30-60 percent; rates vary both by country and within countries. No data are available to track whether female graduates are entering successful careers in aquaculture. To accelerate HCD to meet the needs of aquaculture growth, commodity and theme priorities for HCD must be established. Educational institutions should cooperate and harmonize work programmes and overcome language barriers. Aquaculture education needs the best students and should help prepare them for rewarding careers. More social science content is needed in aquaculture curricula to groom graduates for management and leadership roles. The gender balance in aquaculture faculty could be improved by recruiting and retaining more women.

      Gender should be put firmly on the policy agenda and built into normative instruments, old and new, complemented by the collection of gender-disaggregated data for aquaculture supply chains. Women should be empowered through gender equity in access to financial, natural, training and market resources. Women in aquaculture should not be stereotyped as 'small-scale' and poor. Women are often hampered by systemic barriers such as lack of legal rights. Women should be encouraged to build their management, leadership and entrepreneural skills. In circumstances where rural men have migrated for work, small-scale aquaculture has proven a suitable livelihood option to reduce the pressure on women. Because postharvest processing and fish trade are feminized occupations, gender equity deserves special attention in fair trade and fish certification schemes. HCD and gender are receiving more attention in rehabilitation efforts to assist survivors from disease and natural disasters.
    • Conference paper

      Way forward 

      MG Bondad-Reantaso - In EA Tendencia, LD de la Peña & JMV de la Cruz (Eds.), Aquatic Emergency Preparedness and Response Systems for Effective Management of Transboundary Disease Outbreaks … of Asean Regional Technical Consultation, 20-22 August 2018, Centara Grand Central Ladprao, Bangkok, Thailand, 2019 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The overall objective of this technical consultation is to bring together the representatives of ASEAN Member States and technical experts to examine the status of aquatic emergency preparedness and response systems currently being practiced in the region in order to identify gaps and other initiatives for regional cooperation. In the general sense, the RTC is successful in achieving the general objective.

      As for the specific objectives, (a) to assess existing laws, legislations and standard operating procedures (SOPs), among others had been partially achieved. This is because the consultation didn t assess but was only informed (through the reports of country representatives) of the current situation in ASEAN member countries. The way forward of this is to complete the EPRS audit questionnaire as basis of the more systematic assessment. The second objective is (b) to assess the need for a regional aquatic EPRS in the ASEAN, the participant voted in the affirmative. The way forward of this is to create the ASEAN guidelines including the mechanics. The third objective is to (c) enhance cooperation among Member States, regional/international organizations and other relevant stakeholders on initiatives that support aquatic EPRS for effective management of aquatic animal disease outbreaks. This objective has been achieved. The way forward for this is to get the same people for a planned and proposed consultation II for continuity and for emphasis on more private sector and academe representation.