Now showing items 1-8 of 8

    • Conference paper

      Defatted soybean meal and Leucaena leaf meal as protein sources in diets for Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      F Piedad-Pascual & M Catacutan - In R Hirano & I Hanyu (Eds.), The Second Asian Fisheries Forum: Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 17 - 22 April 1989, 1990 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Penaeus monodon juveniles, mean weight 0.38 g, were fed 12 practical diets with 30, 20 or 16% Peruvian fish meal, 15 or 35% defatted soybean meal (DSM), 10% Leucaena leucocephala , leaf meal (LM), and 15% shrimp meal with and without vitamins and/or minerals. The diets contained 42-48% crude protein and 11-13% crude fat. The animals were stocked at 10 per fiberglass tank, and reared in 40 aerated seawater in a flowthrough system for 8 weeks. Growth and survival were not affected by the level of DSM but significantly decreased in prawn fed diets with LM. Feed conversion ratios of prawn were better for complete diets than those where vitamins only were added. Poor feed conversion ratios and specific growth rates were obtained when no vitamins and minerals or only minerals were added to the diets.
    • Conference paper

      Effect of supplemental lecithin and lipid sources on the growth and survival of Penaeus monodon juveniles 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In JL Maclean, LB Dizon & LV Hosillos (Eds.), The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-31 May 1986, Manila, Philippines, 1986 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared in 60-liter fiberglass oval tanks in a flow-through seawater system for 8 weeks to determine the effect of lecithin and type of lipid on growth and survival. Nine isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets consisting of a basal practical diet (40% protein, 10% lipid) with 3 levels of soy lecithin and 3 sources of lipid cod liver oil, crude degummed soybean oil and purified soybean oil were used. Feed was offered twice daily. Percentage weight gains significantly increased as the level of lecithin was increased from 0 to 2% regardless of the lipid source. At all levels of lecithin, survival rates were significantly higher in those fed diets containing crude degummed soybean oil compared to those fed either cod liver oil or purified soybean oil. Lecithin levels and lipid sources did not significantly affect the feed conversion values. The best was that which had 2% soy lecithin with 3.8% crude degummed soybean oil.
    • Conference paper

      Formulated feeds for Penaeus monodon 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In Report of the Workshop on Shrimp and Finfish Feed Development, 25-29 October 1998, Johore Bahru, Malaysia, 1989 - ASEAN/UNDP/FAO Regional Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development Project
      The paper discusses the food and feeding habits of Penaeus monodon , present knowledge of nutrient requirements and available formulation in the market including those developed at the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. Economics of feeding is also presented. Further research on the use of indigenous feed ingredients and nutritional requirement studies should be carried out to lower cost of feed and increase profits for the farmers.
    • Article

      Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaves as a plant protein source in prawn diets 

      F Piedad-Pascual & NS Tabbu - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1980 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Penaeus monodon juveniles were fed diets containing fish meal, shrimp head meal and ipil-ipil leaves soaked and unsoaked, local and peruvian varieties. Mean weight gain at the end of 8 wk was significantly highest among those given the diet containing commercial ipil-ipil leaves. Gain in length followed the same pattern as mean weight gains. Among the diets containing ipil-ipil leaves there was a direct relationship in the amount of mimosine in the diet and the survival rate, the lower the amount of mimosine (due to soaking) the higher the survival rate. The Results thus indicate the beneficial effect of the addition of commercial ipil-ipil leaves to the diets of prawns, providing the mimosine content is kept low by soaking. A reduce in costs is also obtained, since 1kg of shrimp head meal or fish costs more than 2 or 4 tons, respectively, than that of ipil-ipil foliage.
    • Conference paper

      An overview of the nutrition, feed and feeding techniques of prawn penaeid/shrimps 

      F Piedad-Pascual - In RD Fortes, LC Darvin & DL de Guzman (Eds.), Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Fish and Crustacean Feeds and Nutrition, 25-26 February 1985, Iloilo City, Philippines, 1989 - Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development
      This paper echoes what transpired during the first International Conference of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps held in Iloilo City in December 4-7, 1984, particularly on the Nutrition nd Feed Development. Around 25 papers were presented during the conference.

      The nutrient requirements of P. japonicus and to some extent, P. monodon have been studied quite extensively compared to other penaeid species. Requirements for protein, carbohydrates fats, amino acids and essential fatty acids for juveniles and larvae have been defined compared to those of the broodstock.

      Optimum protein levels for prawn juveniles vary from 28-38% for P. kerathurus, 40-46% for P. monodon, 43% for P. indicus and 50-54% for P. japonicus. Dissacharides like sucrose and trehalose have been found to be good source of carbohydrates at 20-25% in the diet. Crustacean diets require around 0.5% cholesterol. There are few studies on vitamine and mineral requirements.

      There are artificial diets for juveniles and microencapsulated diets that can completely replace live organisms as larval feed. Microencapsulated diets have been field-tested for P. vannamei, P. stylirostris, P. monodon, P. indicus and P. merguiensis in Ecuador, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines.

      When a commercial diet for the broodstock becomes available ther will be an artificial diet for athe life cycle of tha prawn.
    • Article

      A preliminary study on the protein requirement of Chanos chanos (Forskal) fry in a controlled environment 

      C Lim, S Sukhawongs & F Piedad-Pascual - SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department Quarterly Research Report, 1978 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Growth rate of fish appeared to be related to the levels of the protein in the diet up to 40%. Fish fed diets containing 50 and 60% grew slower than those fed 40%, and the optimum level appears to be 40% when fed to fry at a rate of 10% of body weight. Best feed conversion of 1.96 was also obtained from the 40% protein diet. Mean survival rates were low in all treatments, but highest for the 40% protein diet. The competition of 5 isocaloric experimental diets containing various levels of protein are tabulated, as are weight gains, diet conversions and survival rates for milkfish fry fed various dietary levels of protein. Growth curves for milkfish fry are shown, and the relationship between weight gains of milkfish fry and the dietary levels of protein are illustrated.
    • Article

      Some histological observations on the opaque eyes of milkfish Chanos chanos Forskal 

      CT Tamse, F Piedad-Pascual & MC de la Cruz - Fisheries Research Journal of the Philippines, 1983 - Fisheries Research Society of the Philippines
      In a study on energy-protein requirements of milkfish fingerlings using semi-purified diets, several gross observations were made on individual milk-fish such as fin and tail rot, yellowish coloration of the abdomen, opacity and swollen adipose membrane of the eyes. The latter abnormality occurred four to five weeks after feeding semi-purified diets. Milkfish eyes with the abnormality were processed for histological analysis. Opacity of the cornea and lens and degeneration of the eye tissues, thickening of the corneal epthelium and oedema of the stromal layers were seen. Necrosis of the iris, slight thickening of the lens capsule, detachment and destruction of the retinal layers were also observed.
    • Article

      Supplemental feeding of Penaeus monodon juveniles with diets containing various levels of defatted soybean meal 

      F Piedad-Pascual, EM Cruz & A Sumalangcay Jr. - Aquaculture, 1990 - Elsevier
      Varying levels of defattedsoybeanmeal DSM (15, 25, 35, 45 and 55%) in supplementaldiets with approximately 40% crude protein and 10% crude fat were fed to tiger prawn juveniles in 1 m×1 m×1 m net cages set on the bottom of a 1-ha earthen pond. Prawns were stocked at 10 or 20 per m2 and fed the various diets for 3 months. Prawns were also stocked outside the cages at a stocking density of 0.5/m2. Weight gains were significantly affected by supplementalfeeding and stocking rate. Prawns that were stocked outside the cages weighed 13.2 g upon termination whereas those stocked at 10/m2 and 20/m2 were twice as heavy. Higher weight gains were recorded for prawns stocked at 10/m2 compared to those stocked at 20/m2. There were no significant differences in weight gains of prawns fed varying levels of soybeanmeal at stocking densities of 10 or 20/m2, indicating that soybeanmeal can be incorporated into the ration at high levels. At both stocking rates, survival rates were relatively high and were not significantly different. Although no significant differences in growth were observed due to the different levels of defatted soybean meal in the diets, the diet with 35% DSM and 16% Peruvian fish meal gave the best yield.