Now showing items 1-6 of 6

    • Article

      Advanced broodstock diets for the mangrove red snapper and a potential importance of arachidonic acid in eggs and fry 

      AC Emata, HY Ogata, ES Garibay & H Furuita - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2003 - Springer Verlag
      Mangrove red snapper fed advanced broodstock diets containing squid meal and squid oil exhibited higher hatching rates, cumulative survival and survival activity index than those fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with mixture of antioxidants. On the other hand, fatty acid analyses of ovaries and fry of wild fish and eggs and larvae of broodstock fed raw fish revealed high arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and relatively lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels consequently showing high ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios compared to cold water species. This suggests that ARA may be nutritionally more important for egg and larval development and survival in tropical marine fish and its supplementation in broodstock diets may enhance reproductive performance of mangrove red snapper.
    • Book chapter

      Arachidonic acid distribution in seaweed, seagrass, invertebrates and dugong in coral reef areas in the Philippines 

      A Suloma, HY Ogata, H Furuita, ES Garibay & DR Chavez - In K Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Arachidonic acid (ArA) was not a minor component, and ArA distributes widely in coral reef organisms. Seagrass had high linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels with low Ara, EPA and DHA levels, while some species of seaweed had intermediate or high ArA levels (5% to 12%). In starfish, sea cucumber and some species of corals, ArA was the first major fatty acid (20% to 30%), but DHA levels were very low. Bivalves, abalone and shrimps had intermediate ArA levels. Total lipids of abdominal muscle and liver of dugong had respectively ArA levels of 7.8% and 11.0%, which were higher than EPA levels (2.4% and 1.6%), but DHA levels (0.4% and 2.3%) were low. It is clear that ArA is a major fatty acid in coral reef animals. The present results suggest that the existence of an ArA-rich food chain may be widespread in coral reef areas, and that the widespread existence of ArA-rich food chain may lead to intermediate or high ArA contents in tropical species.
    • Book chapter

      Arachidonic acid is a major fatty acid in gonads of coral reef fishes and improves larval survival of rabbitfish Sigunus gutattus 

      A Suloma, DR Chavez, ES Garibay, H Furuita & HY Ogata - In SL Ortiz (Ed.), Coral reefs : ecosystems, environmental impact, and current threats, 2016 - Nova Science Publishers
      The supply of wild fry of coral reef fishes for aquaculture has resulted in the deterioration of their natural stock status, causing public concern. Through a series of studies on the establishment of artificial-fry production technologies for coral reef fishes, we found that ovary, testis, eggs and fry of coral reef fishes have high or intermediate levels of arachidonic acid (ArA), which is a relatively minor component in temperate and cold-water species. In gonadal polar lipids of selected coral reef, in particular demersal fishes (19 species), ArA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels ranged from 6.0% to 19.4%, from 0.9% to 6.2%, and from 7.9% to 27.8%, respectively. It is notable that the major highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of polar lipids in all coral reef fish gonads are DHA and ArA (not EPA) in a ratio of about 2:1. This result allowed us to speculate that not only DHA but also ArA may be nutritionally much important for egg development and larval growth in coral reef fishes.

      Thus, feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation on reproductive performance of coral reef rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) broodstock. The number of spawning and the number of hatched larvae tended to be better in broodstock fed diets with ArA than in those fed a diet without ArA. Next, larval rearing tests were conducted to investigate survival and growth in rabbitfish fry fed live rotifers which had been enriched with or without ArA. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHA Protein Selco (Inve Aquaculture, Baasrode, Belgium) + 5% ArA (VEVODAR CRUDE ARACHIDONIC OIL, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands) showed significantly the best survival (44.4 ± 4.5% for Day 17 fry), although growth was not different among treatments. The present study indicates that ArA is not a minor component in coral reef fishes, and that dietary ArA is very promising for the improvement of fry production technologies of the coral reef fishes.
    • Book chapter

      Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on larval and survival and reproductive performance in rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus 

      DR Chavez, HY Ogata, ES Garibay, HT Sollesta, KR Tibubos, H Furuita & A Suloma - In K Nakamura (Ed.), Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2007 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
      Series: JIRCAS Working Report No. 56
      Fry of tropical marine fish needed for aquaculture still comes mostly from the wild. Thus, fry availability is a major constraint in the development and extension of aquaculture, especially in rural areas of developing regions. Although the mission of hatcheries is to provide a stable fry production and supply for farmers, fry production remains variable due to poor fecundity and low survival. For the last four years (2002-2005), SEAFDEC/AQD and JIRCAS have conducted the collaborative project that was aimed at developing advanced diets for improving egg production/quality (2002-2005) and larvae/fry quality (2004-2005) through dietary manipulation. Larval rearing tests: In 2005, larval rearing tests (4 trials with rotifers) were conducted to investigate the effects of enriched-live food (4treatments: low (CS) and high (DHAPS) HUFA with or without arachidonic acid supplementation) on survival and growth in rabbitfish Sigunus guttatus fry. Fry fed the rotifers enriched with a combination of DHAPS+5% ArA showed the best survival (44.4±4.5% for D17 fry in the 4th trial).Growth was not different among the treatments (CS, CS+5% ArA, DHAPS, DHPS+5% ArA). Broodstock tests: From March, 2005 to January,2006, a feeding test has been conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ArA supplementation (0% for diet 1, 0.3% for diet 2 and 0.6% for diet 3) on egg production and quality of wild-caught and hatchery-bled rabbitfish broodstock. The broodstock spawned 13 times for diet1 (six pairs), 14 times for diet 2 (five pairs) and 17 times for diet 3 (six pairs) during the period of May 2005 to January, 2006. The total numbers ofhatched-larvae were 3,818 x 103 for diet 1, 4,391 x 103 for diet 2 and 4,597 x 103 for diet 3. The % of normal larvae did not differ among the dietary treatments. Considering together with the results of mangrove red snapper (2003) and rabbitfish (2004), the optimum level of ArA incorporation appears to be between 0.5% and 0.7%. Judging from the results of fatty acid analysis, DHA and arachidonic acid should be supplemented to diets at the same time as to make DHA/arachidonic acid ratio appropriate. Thus, the present study clearly shows that dietary arachidonic acid supplementation is very promising for the development of fry production technologies in tropical areas.
    • Article

      Fatty acid composition of five candidate aquaculture species in Central Philippines 

      HY Ogata, AC Emata, ES Garibay & H Furuita - Aquaculture, 2004 - Elsevier
      Fatty acid composition was determined in five candidate aquaculture species, mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), two rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus and S. canaliculatus), coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and striped jack (Caranx fulvoguttatus) sampled in the Central Philippines. Special attention was paid to arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Total lipids of hatchery-produced eggs and newly hatched larvae of mangrove red snapper unexpectedly had equal levels of ARA and EPA. Ovarian polar lipids were subsequently found to have intermediate or high ARA (5.5–10.7%) and DHA (14.4–20.4%) levels but relatively low EPA levels (1.5–1.9%), consequently showing high ARA/EPA (4.4–6.0) and DHA/EPA (7.4–14.9) ratios in wild mangrove red snapper and rabbitfish (S. guttatus and S. canaliculatus). Similar trends were observed even in hatchery-reared mangrove red snapper, rabbitfish (S. guttatus) and coral trout. Not only ovary but also liver and muscle contained relatively higher ARA compared with EPA in mangrove red snapper, regardless of the sample source. ARA, EPA and DHA levels in the polar lipids of wild fry (whole body) ranged respectively from 3.2% to 4.0%, from 2.7% to 4.7% and from 23.5% to 27.6% with intermediate or high ARA/EPA (0.8–1.5) and DHA/EPA (5.9–8.8) ratios in mangrove red snapper, rabbitfish (S. canaliculatus) and striped jack. As overall traits, the five species in the Central Philippines appear to have intermediate or high ARA and DHA levels with low EPA level, consequently having high ARA/EPA and DHA/EPA ratios compared to species in high and temperate northern hemisphere. Thus, the present results indicate that ARA is not a minor component in the tropical species, suggesting that ARA may be nutritionally much more important for egg development and larvae growth in the tropical species than in cold water species. The information of the present study can be used as a guideline for development of appropriate broodstock and/or larval diets in the Philippines.
    • Article

      Hatchery-produced milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry should be fed docosahexaenoic acid-enriched live food: A case of the difficulty in the transfer of improved aquaculture technology in the Philippines 

      HY Ogata, DR Chavez, ES Garibay, H Furuita & A Suloma - Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 2006 - Ministry of Tropical Agricultural Research Centre
      Levels of highly-unsaturated fatty acids, the most important nutritional factors in fry production of marine fish, were compared between hatchery-produced and wild-caught milkfish Chanos chanos fry. The most striking difference found between the fry was in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: 22:6n-3) levels: DHA levels in hatchery-produced fry were only 37% and 18% of those in wild-caught fry in the polar lipids and neutral lipids, respectively. However, high DHA levels were detected in ovary and spawned eggs from hatchery-reared broodstock. Investigation on the time course change in DHA levels of hatchery-produced fry revealed that the DHA levels of polar lipids drastically declined from 25% at day 0 posthatching to 5% at day 14 posthatching. Nannochloropsis sp. and rotifers Brachionus sp., which were used as live food from day 2 to day 14, did not contain DHA with relatively high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: 20:5n-3) levels. DHA level was restored to 13% in 45-day old fry by feeding of formulated diets with a substantial amount of DHA from day 15. Thus, the lack of DHA in the live food appears to lead to the low DHA level in hatchery-produced fry. On the other hand, the cost of DHA enrichment for one milkfish fry was estimated to be 2.6 Philippines centavos, which is equivalent to about 10% of the market price of milkfish fry. The increase of the production cost might not be accepted in domestic hatcheries under competitive marketing with imported fry. Financial and marketing support by the government will be one of the measures to encourage the stable production of domestic milkfish fry with high quality in the Philippines. It is also necessary to conduct institutional campaigns to inform local fry producers and milkfish farmers of the importance of DHA-enrichment.