Now showing items 1-4 of 4

    • Article

      Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in diets for juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - Aquaculture Research, 2004 - Blackwell Publishing
      Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for dry matter (ADCdm) and crude protein (ADCcp) of selected feed ingredients were determined in vivo for grouper using passive faeces collection (Guelph System). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisted of 70% RF and 30% test ingredient) with 1% Cr2O3 as an inert indicator were used. An RF contained 45% protein, 10% fat and 15.7 kJ g−1 metabolizable energy. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, each contained a test ingredient (white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal), were used in a growth study based on ADCcp of feed ingredients. An RF without Cr2O3 was a control. The ADC values of experimental diets were also determined. In grouper, the ADCdm of white cowpea meal, defatted soybean meal, wheat flour and shrimp meal (74–76%) were significantly lower than that of squid meal (99%), but comparable with those of the fish meals (84–89%). No significant difference was observed between the ADCdm of ipil-ipil leaf meal, rice bran and wheat flour (56–73%). The ADCcp of white cowpea meal and defatted soybean meal were similar to those of the fish meals, squid meal and shrimp meal (94–99%). The ADCcp of wheat flour was comparable with that of ipil-ipil leaf meal (79–83%). Rice bran had the lowest ADCcp value of 43%. Based on specific growth rate (SGR), the growth of fish fed white cowpea meal-based diets was similar to that of the control fish (3.2–3.3% day−1). Also, no significant difference was observed between the ADCdm (68–72%) and ADCcp (88–91%) of white cowpea meal-based diet and the control diet. The results suggest that ADC values can be used as indicators to determine the nutritional value of feed ingredients. White cowpea meal can be incorporated as a protein source in practical diet for grouper at 20.5% of the diet with no adverse effect on growth.
    • Article

      Dietary supplemental effects of red seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum on growth performance, carcass composition and blood chemistry of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus 

      JA Ragaza, S Koshio, RE Mamauag, M Ishikawa, S Yokoyama & SS Villamor - Aquaculture Research, 2015 - Wiley
      A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing diets of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, with Eucheuma denticulatum (EDP). Isonitrogenous and isolipidic test diets were prepared using a fishmeal-based positive control diet (PC) and a fishmeal-soy protein concentrate negative control diet (NC) supplemented with 3 (D3%), 6 (D6%) and 9% (D9%) EDP. The test diets were assigned to tanks (12 fish tank−1, initial mean body weight of 0.42 ± 0.01 g) in triplicates. Results of the feeding trial indicated that growth rates and feed efficiency significantly improved (P < 0.05) when 3% EDP was supplemented in the diets. However, there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of growth and feed efficiency in fish fed diets with higher supplementation levels. Protein, lipid, dry matter and ash contents of carcass and their corresponding nutrient retention values were not markedly altered in all dietary treatments. Fish fed diets supplemented with EDP exhibited higher (P < 0.05) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in dorsal muscle when compared with those of fish fed NC. Blood chemical parameters showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These results suggest that EDP can be efficiently utilized by Japanese flounder and can promote best growth and feed utilization at a level of 3%.
    • Article

      Hydrolyzed tuna meat by-product supplement for juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major, and its effect on growth, enzyme activity, plasma parameters, and apparent nutrient digestibility 

      RE Mamauag, JA Ragaza, S Koshio, M Ishikawa & S Yokoyama - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2014 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology (SIAMB)
      A growth experiment was conducted on juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major to investigate the effect of the inclusion in fish diets, of tuna meat by-product hydrolysate which was processed through enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercially available enzyme, derived from Bacillus subtilis. Six experimental diets were formulated in the experiment. Three diets contained 50, 150 and 250 g/kg of TPM-H (tuna meat by-product hydrolysate), and two diets with the unprocessed TPM (tuna meat by-product) at an inclusion level of 50 and 250 g/kg. A control diet was formulated without any addition of the test ingredients. Treatment diets were fed ad libitum to juvenile fish with an initial average body weight of 0.81 ±0.13 g for 56 days. Results of the feeding trial suggest that the inclusion of TPM-H at 250 g/kg in fish diets improved body weight gain rate (3271.58%), feed intake (24.55 g/fish/56 days) and feed conversion efficiency (1.12) of the fish. Apparent nutrient digestibility of hydrolyzed tuna meat by-product improved compared to the unhydrolyzed ingredient. These results suggest that TPM processed as hydrolysates can be efficiently utilized by fish.
    • Article

      Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil 

      J Gao, S Koshio, M Ishikawa, S Yokoyama & REP Mamauag - Aquaculture, 2014 - Elsevier
      A study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of vitamin C (VC) and E (VE) supplementation on growth, fatty acid composition and oxidative status of Japanese flounder juveniles. Fish (initial average body weight of 1.1 ± 0.1 g) in triplicate were fed five test diets for 60 days. Control diet contained fresh fish oil (FFO, 8.9 meq/kg) with 100 mg α-tocopherol (α-Toc) equivalents/kg of VE and 500 mg ascorbic acid (AsA) equivalents/kg of VC (FFO100E/500C). The other four diets contained oxidized fish oil (OFO, 167.8 meq/kg) with varying levels of VE (mg/kg) and VC (mg/kg) (OFO100E/500C, OFO200E/500C, OFO100E/1000C and OFO200E/1000C). Fish fed FFO100E/500C and OFO100E/500C had no differences in body weight gain (BWG). However, fish fed OFO200E/1000C diet had a significantly lower BWG than FFO100E/500C. Fish fed OFO200E/500C and OFO100E/1000C showed no differences in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values compared with FFO100E/500C. Increasing the levels of VC and VE supplementation increased liver AsA and α-Toc contents, respectively. Liver α-Toc content was significantly increased with incremental dietary VC levels, indicating a sparing effect of VC on liver α-Toc content of fish. Increasing the levels of dietary VC and VE supplementations decreased concentrations of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in fish liver. Fish fed OFO100E/500C and OFO200E/1000C diets showed higher oxidative stress condition than those fed FFO100E/500C. In conclusion, dietary VC and VE supplementation could maintain normal growth and health condition of juvenile Japanese flounder fed OFO. However, high doses of both vitamin supplements induced fish lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress condition.