Now showing items 1-6 of 6

    • Book chapter

      Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      Series: ACIAR Monograph 110
      This study was conducted to determine the quality of selected feed ingredients as protein sources in grouper diets, based on their nutrient composition and apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD). A total of 56 juveniles were used for the 1st batch of test ingredients (Chilean fish meal, white fish meal, shrimp meal, defatted soyabean oilmeal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal). 54, 72 and 48 juveniles were used for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th batches of test ingredients (squid meal, local meat and bone meal, meat solubles, soya protein concentrates and rice bran; tuna fish meal, imported meat and bone meal, blood meal, maize gluten meal and wheat flour; and poultry feather meal, lupin seed meal and maize germ meal, respectively). Apparent digestibility coefficients were measured in vivo. The apparent digestibility coefficients for ADMD ranged from 37-99%. Squid meal and meat solubles had the highest coefficients, whereas blood meal had the lowest. The APD of all feed ingredients tested were relatively high (79-99%), except for rice bran (43%) and blood meal (15%). ADMD values varied with the levels of fibre and other carbohydrate substances in the feed ingredients. Groupers could utilize dietary protein efficiently regardless of whether it was of animal or plant origin. High APD values were generally obtained in feed ingredients with high protein content. Low digestibility coefficients for feed ingredients could also be attributed to the processing methods used in their preparation.
    • Article

      Dietary soy peptide enhances thermotolerance and survival of juvenile japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus 

      JA Ragaza, REP Mamauag, S Yokoyama, M Ishikawa & S Koshio - Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 2015 - World Aquaculture Society
      Soy peptide (SP), a soy protein enzymatic hydrolysate, contains bioactive substances that could be utilized as an immune-stimulating feed ingredient. The experiment evaluated the efficacy of dietary SP on promoting growth, and enhancing tolerance and survival to heat stress in juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Four diets were incorporated with different levels of SP (0, 2, 5, and 10%) and a 6-wk feeding trial ensued. Following the feeding trial, the experimental groups were subjected to heat stress to measure survival rate and heat shock protein 70s (HSP70s) in gill, liver, and skin. Fish fed diets with SP inclusion showed considerable decrease in percent weight gain. Significantly higher lethal time values to 50% mortality (LT50) value were recorded for fish fed 10% SP. Moreover, LT50 values of fish fed 2 and 5% SP were significantly higher compared with fish fed control diet. HSP70s produced in all the tissues were significantly highest in fish fed 10% SP. HSP70s values were significantly higher in fish fed 2 and 5% SP compared with fish fed control diet. A significant reduction in HSP70s among all groups during recovery period was also observed. These results suggest that SP can be used to enhance the immune response and survival of P. olivaceus under heat stress.
    • Book chapter

      Evaluation of some terrestrial proteins in complete diets for grouper (Epinephelus coioides) juveniles 

      PS Eusebio, RM Coloso & REP Mamauag - In MA Rimmer, S McBride & KC Williams (Eds.), Advances in grouper aquaculture, 2004 - Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
      This study was undertaken to determine the nutritive value of some of the more widely available protein sources in the diets for grouper juveniles, based on apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (APD), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. A series of feeding experiments were conducted to determine the growth performance of grouper juveniles. Test diets were formulated for growth (4 replications/treatment) and digestibility experiments (3 replications/treatment). Each diet contained a test ingredient: white fish meal, white cowpea meal and ipil-ipil leaf meal (experiment 1); local meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and meat solubles (experiment 2); and imported meal and bone meal, blood meal and maize gluten meal (experiment 3). A feeding trial for each experiment was conducted for 85 days in a flow-through system with filtered and aerated seawater. 10 and 20 juveniles were stocked in each of 60- and 250-litre fibreglass tanks, respectively. White cowpea meal (20.5% incorporation), local (16% incorporation) and imported (19% incorporation) meat and bone meals could partially replace fish meal in the diets for grouper juveniles without affecting their growth. Low ADMD and APD values for the processed feed ingredients (meat and bone meal, soya protein concentrates and blood meal-based diets) could be associated with the processing methods used in its preparation, which could damage the amino acids and contribute to low nitrogen digestibility. Apparent digestibility coefficients and growth could be used as indicators of the nutritional value of the feed ingredients. However, the availability and optimal balance of amino acids must also be considered.
    • Article

      Growth and feed performance, digestibility and acute stress response of juvenile grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) fed diets with hydrolysate from milkfish offal 

      REP Mamauag & JA Ragaza - Aquaculture Research, 2017 - Wiley
      Nutritional qualities of fish processing by-products can further be improved through enzymatic hydrolysis. The objective of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of hydrolysed milkfish offal at different inclusion levels when fed to juvenile grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, with an initial body weight of 2.88 ± 0.06 g. The animals were fed for 56 days with seven diets supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 15% and 25% of milkfish offal (MO) and milkfish offal hydrolysate (MOH). The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (45%) and isolipidic (11%). The diets were assigned to 21 tanks (15 fish per tank) with each diet having three replicates. Results from the experimental trials indicated that feed conversion efficiency, feed intake and weight gain of fish significantly (P < 0.05) improved when fed diets with MOH. No significant differences within the rest of the dietary treatments were observed. Survival rate (>90%) did not differ in all the dietary treatments. Proximate composition (crude protein, crude fat and ash) indicated no significant difference among fish fed from all the dietary treatments. Apparent digestibility of MOH indicated a 95% and 66% digestibility for protein and dry matter respectively. Plasma stress parameters (cortisol and glucose) were not influenced by the dietary treatment when fish were subjected to an acute stressor (5-min chasing). Liver morphology indicated normal hepatocyte shape and the presence of lipid droplets in fish fed from all the dietary treatments. The results indicated that milkfish offal processed as hydrolysate can be utilized in grouper diets and can promote growth and feed efficiency when supplied at 10–15%.
    • Article

      Nutritional evaluation of distiller's dried grain with soluble as replacement to soybean meal in diets of milkfish, Chanos chanos and its effect on fish performance and intestinal morphology 

      REP Mamauag, JA Ragaza & TJ Nacionales - Aquaculture Nutrition, 2017 - Wiley
      A 90-day feeding trial was conducted on milkfish, Chanos chanos with an initial mean body weight of 3.07 ± 0.17 g (mean ± standard error of mean). Six treatment diets were formulated to contain 0 g/kg (Diet 1), 150 g/kg (Diet 2), 25 g/kg (Diet 3), 300 g/kg (Diet 4), 350 g/kg (Diet 5) and 450 g/kg (Diet 6) distiller's dried grain with soluble (DDGS). All the dietary treatments were isonitrogenous (350 g/kg crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid). Result of the feeding trial indicated that growth rates, feed intake and feed efficiency were not significantly (p > .05) affected by inclusion levels of DDGS by up to 450 g/kg in the feed. Proximate body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash, fibre) in fish fed the dietary treatments were not significantly (p > .05) affected as well. The DDGS when used as a milkfish ingredient has a protein digestibility of 910 g/kg, fat disgetsibility of 850 g/kg, carbohydrate digestibility of 750 g/kg and a dry matter digestibility of 520 g/kg Results from the intestinal morphology displayed no apparent pathological changes in the digestive tract of fish fed all dietary treatments. These results indicate that DDGS can be efficiently utilized by milkfish by up to 450 g/kg without negatively affecting performance parameters and intestinal morphology.
    • magazineArticle

      Supporting ASEAN good aquaculture practices: Utilization of alternative protein sources for aquafeed to minimize pressure on fishery resources 

      REP Mamauag - Fish for the People, 2016 - SEAFDEC Secretariat
      Aquaculture industry of Southeast Asia has been expanding steadily as a result of an increasing demand of food fish in the region as well as in the global scale. Aside from its contribution to the world’s fisheries, the aquaculture industry creates employment opportunities and provides income for the region’s fish farmers, as well as produces fish which is a major component in the diets of peoples in Southeast Asia. However, the fast development of aquaculture had been viewed as threat to sustainable capture fisheries production as the widespread use of fish by-catch in aquaculture feeds results in overexploitation of the fishery resources and to certain extent degradation of the resources. Recognizing the importance and urgency of addressing such concern, the Senior Officials of the ASEAN Member States responsible for fisheries adopted in June 2011, the Plan of Action on Sustainable Fisheries for Food security for the ASEAN Region Towards 2020 which includes provision on the need to “improve the efficient use of aquatic feeds by strictly regulating the quality of manufactured feed and feed ingredients and support continued research for developing suitable alternative protein sources that will reduce dependence on fishmeal and other fish-based products.” Along with such declaration, the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department has been enhancing its R&D activities aimed at finding alternatives to fishmeal as feed ingredients in aquaculture feed formulations.