Now showing items 1-20 of 51

    • Article

      Acceptability of territorial use rights in fisheries: towards community-based management of small-scale fisheries in the Philippines 

      SV Siar, RF Agbayani & JB Valera - Fisheries Research, 1992 - Elsevier
      The granting of territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs) to fisherfolk associations, similar to that practiced in Japan, is recommended as a management tool for small-scale fisheries in the Philippines. This study, carried out to determine the acceptability of the practice under Philippine conditions, was conducted among 211 coastal dwellers of five municipalities in Panay Island, Central Philippines. Respondents of the survey generally perceived the practice of TURFs as acceptable as it would lead to an improvement of their catch. Results suggest that the respondents' present predicament of inadequacy of catch to support their livelihood is the starting point for introduction of the rationale for community-based management of coastal marine resources.
    • Book chapter

      Aquaculture economics in Asia and the Pacific: A regional assessment 

      RF Agbayani, ET Belleza & EC Agbayani - In Aquaculture economics in developing countries: regional assessments and an annotated bibliography, 1997 - Rome: FAO
      Series: Aquaculture economics in developing countries: regional assessments and an annotated bibliography
      A broad overview is given of research and information on aquaculture economics in Asia and the Pacific. Following a description of the general state of aquaculture in the region, an examination is made of the available research and information on the various aquaculture systems: inland/freshwater aquaculture; brackishwater /coastal aquaculture; and, marine aquaculture/sea farming. Studies on post-harvest handling, processing, transportation and marketing, and market analysis and development are discussed. Environmental issues and concerns, social equity and women's issues, community-based coastal resources management, technology transfer and macro-economic policies and institutional structures are also analysed. Aquaculture economics research is also assessed, highlighting thrusts, priorities, constraints and needs.
    • Book chapter

      Business planning and management for sustainable small-scale rural aquaculture venture 

      RF Agbayani - In Handbook for Regional Training on Community-Based Aquaculture for Remote Rural Areas of Southeast Asia, 2008 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Co-management in marine fisheries in Malalison Island, central Philippines 

      DB Baticados & RF Agbayani - International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 2000 - Taylor & Francis
      This study, conducted from November 1995 to February 1996, describes the evolution and impact of fisheries co-management arrangements in a coral reef fishing village at Malalison Island, central Philippines. The island is the site of a community-based fishery resources management project of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department, funded by the International Development Research Centre of Canada.

      Using a case study approach and inferential statistics in the analysis of data, the CD. management arrangements on the island are perceived to be successful based on equity, efficiency and sustainability criteria. Fishers, represented by the Fishermen's Association of Malalison Island (FAMI) who form the core group, participated actively in the management of fishery resources with legal and financial support both from the municipal and barangay (village) government. Potential problems nonetheless, still exist with the ambivalent attitude of fishers toward rule-breaking, especially of fishery rules directly affecting them. The future of co-management arrangements will largely depend on how the fishers and other stakeholders maintain and build earlier initiatives with the eventual phasing out of SEAFDEC AQD from the island. The rapid population growth could also affect project gains.
    • Conference paper

      Community fishery resources management in Malalison Island, Philippines 

      RF Agbayani - In TU Bagarinao & EEC Flores (Eds.), Towards sustainable aquaculture in Southeast Asia and Japan: Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, Iloilo City, Philippines, 26-28 July, 1994, 1995 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The Community Fishery Resources Management Project, launched in 1991 in Malalison Island, Philippines is a development-oriented research project integrating biology, economics, sociology, engineering, and public administration. The general objective is to support, and learn from, the collaboration of people's organization, biologists, and social scientists in applying community-based techniques in fishery management. During Phase I, the Project concentrated on community organizing, institution building, and the introduction of seaweed farming as alternative livelihood. Studies were made on the marine resources of the island, the traditional boundaries and territorial use rights, the economic utilization of resources in the island, and the cultivation techniques for seaweeds. Phase II started in 1994 with the implementation of the territorial use rights in fisheries and the test deployment of prototype concrete artificial reefs. Phase II includes impact assessment (environmental, social, and economic), institutional arrangements in fishery co-management, ethnographic studies, economics of Seafarming techniques, and management of fishery cooperatives.
    • Article

      Community fishery resources management on Malalison Island, Philippines: R & D framework, interventions, and policy implications 

      RF Agbayani, DB Baticados & SB Siar - Coastal Management, 2000 - Taylor & Francis
      In 1991, the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center launched a community-based fishery resources management project on Malalison Island, in central Philippines, to help conserve the country's marine resources and to help the fisherfolk rise above their poverty. The eight-year project integrated various disciplines in biology, economics, sociology, public administration, and engineering in its study of fishery resources and fishing communities and in evolving intervention strategies for resource conservation and management, and for community development. The project's most important accomplishment was the inculcation among the fisherfolk of the importance of resource conservation and management. The most important lesson learned was that an enlightened and empowered fisherfolk could be effective managers and responsible users of fishery resources.
    • Book chapter

      Community-based aquaculture and resource management: concepts and approaches 

      RF Agbayani - In Handbook for Regional Training on Community-Based Aquaculture for Remote Rural Areas of Southeast Asia, 2008 - Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Conference paper

      Community-based Fishery Resources Management Project in Malalison Island: Institutional arrangements for fisheries co-management 

      RF Agbayani & AS Babol - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      The paper discusses the monitoring mechanism of the SEAFDEC/AQD Community-based Fisheries Resources Management (CFRM) Project at Malalison Island in west central Philippines. The objective of the project was to learn from the collaboration of community organizations, biologists, and social scientists in adapting aquaculture and fishery management techniques and to assess the replicability of the experience to other fishing communities.

      The monitoring mechanism used was Process Documentation Research (PDR), a way of recording the development process of a project focusing on the participatory model of the resource management strategy. A full-time, site-based process documentator gathered information. All activities, meetings, and consultations were tape-recorded. Informal talks or encounters with the people were also recorded.

      The paper showed that PDR provided a better understanding and insight on the positive and negative perceptions of the project beneficiaries on the CFRM project. Unlike other research monitoring methods that match budget with accomplishments, PDR bares the feelings, hopes, and fears of the project beneficiaries regarding the impact of the project on their lives.
    • Article

      Community-based technology transfer in rural aquaculture: The case of mudcrab Scylla serrata nursery in ponds in northern Samar, central Philippines 

      DB Baticados, RF Agbayani & ET Quinitio - AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 2014 - Springer Verlag
      Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from <1.0 to 4.0 cm for 42 days, or by-phases. However, technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies.
    • Conference paper

      Comparative strategies in community-based mangrove rehabilitation programs in the Philippines 

      JH Primavera & RF Agbayani - In NH Phan, N Ishwaran, TS Hoang, HT Nguyen & ST Mai (Eds.), Community Participation in Conservation, Sustainable Use and Rehabilitation of Mangroves in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the ECOTONE V, 8-12 January 1996, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1997 - United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation; Japanese Man and the Biosphere National Committee; Mangrove Ecosystem Research Centre
      Philippine Mangroves have decreased from around 500,000 ha at the turn of the century to 132,000 ha in 1990. Given the varied and important socioeconomic and ecological functions of mangroves including harvest of forestry and fishery products, coastal protection, erosion control and pollution abatement, there is a need to rehabilitate degraded areas. Half of the mangrove areas lost in the las three decades can be traced to the construction of 141'000 ha of brackish water ponds monocropped to mik fish or shrimp. Integrated aquasilviculture is an alternative, although experimental, technology that combines both the fisheries and forestry functions of the mangrove ecosystem.This paper describes four models of mangrove rehabilitation and conservation with varying degrees of community participation in the philippines-monoculture mangrove planting in Kalibo, Aklan; mixed species planting in Silay City, Negros Occidental; aquasilviculture in Puerto Galera, Mindoro Oriental (family) and in Hinobaan, Negros Occidental (association)- and compares their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
    • Article

      Culture and economics of wild grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using three feed types in ponds 

      I Bombeo-Tuburan, EB Coniza, EM Rodriguez & RF Agbayani - Aquaculture, 2001 - Elsevier
      The performance of wild Epinephelus coioides juveniles was compared by feeding with live tilapia juveniles, fish by-catch, and formulated diet for 5 months in grow-out ponds. To minimize cannibalism, the groupers were graded into small (BW=24.9±7.3 g), medium (45.8±5.7 g), and large (84.1±30.0 g) size groups as block in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and reared in nine 350-m2 ponds. To supply the tilapia juveniles, adult tilapia were grown 2 months prior to stocking of grouper at a rate of 15 tilapia/grouper. Grouper fed by-catch were significantly higher (P<0.01) than the other treatments in terms of final length and total production. The quality of by-catch could be gleaned by its efficient feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.0 (dry basis), significantly better (P<0.01) than the formulated diet that had an FCR of 2.8. Using by-catch, 47% of the harvest weighed >400 g and only 14% was classified <200 g. The cost of juvenile grouper and feeds represented 88–89% of the total investment in all treatments. Economic sensitivity analysis showed that a combination of improvement in factors such as price of grouper juveniles, feeds, yield, survival, and FCR would result in higher return-on-investment (ROI). When cost and returns were considered, feeding juveniles with by-catch was more profitable because it resulted in net income of Php 361,623/ha/year, an ROI of 155%, and a payback period of 0.4 year. The results clearly show that these economic indicators appear to be attractive, thus making grouper pond culture using by-catch a viable industry. More research efforts should, however, be directed towards developing a cost-effective formulated diet for the grow-out culture of E. coioides.
    • Article

      Deep-sea farming of Kappaphycus using the multiple raft, long-line method 

      AQ Hurtado & RF Agbayani - Botanica Marina, 2002 - Walter de Gruyter
      Farming practices of Kappaphycus seaweed planters using the multiple raft, long-line method were assessed in three major cultivation areas of Zamboanga del Sur, Mindanao. Results show that this cultivation method is appropriate in deeper waters (> 10 m deep). Family labor (6–70 years old) is usually used in the selection and preparation of ‘cuttings’, unloading of newly harvested crops and drying of seaweeds, while preparation and installation of the raft, tying of ‘cuttings’ and harvesting, hired labor is needed. Though the multiple raft, long-line method of cultivating Kappaphycus is expensive (PhP 45,742 to PhP 49,785) based on a 500 m2 raft, return on investment (ROI) is high and the payback period is short. Of the three areas assessed, Maasin had the highest ROI (218%), followed by Tictauan Island (212%), and finally Taluksangay (79%). Consequently, the payback period followed the same order. Seaweed farming in these areas showed a tremendous impact on the quality life of the fisher folk and contributed a high revenue to the national economy.
    • Article

      Economic analysis of an integrated milkfish broodstock and hatchery operation as a public enterprise 

      RF Agbayani, NA Lopez, RE Tumaliuan & GD Berjamin - Aquaculture, 1991 - Elsevier
      The National Bangus (Milkfish) Breeding Program of the Philippines, which was launched by the Philippine government in 1981, had succeeded in spawning milkfish in captivity and in rearing the eggs to fry that were stockable in ponds. The physical productivity and economic viability of an integrated milkfish broodstock and hatchery as a public enterprise is analyzed, using SEAFDEC research findings as bases for analysis.

      Discounted cash flow computations show the repayment schedule for investments in structures and equipment, and operations and maintenance expenses for both broodstock and hatchery operations covering a period of 15 years. Revenues came from the sales of fry. The analysis was based on an annual stocking of 100 milkfish (200–250 g/piece) per cage with a diameter of 10 m. Egg production started during the fifth year. Investment in the hatchery facilities started during the fourth year and expansion occurred in the subsequent years to accommodate the eggs produced for rearing to the fry stage.

      Economic indicators, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR), showed negative figures. The trend, however, was upward, starting during the sixth year of operation. Sensitivity analysis was done to determine the effects of changes in operational efficiencies, such as survival rates and stocking densities to the return on investment (ROI) in private hatcheries.
    • Article

      Economic analysis of prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in the Philippines, I. Hatchery operations 

      R Agbayani, U Hatch & E Belleza - Asian Fisheries Science, 1995 - Asian Fisheries Society
      High prices of prawn (Penaeus monodon) fry, profitability of hatchery operations, and a low cost hatchery design introduced by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center attracted millions of dollars of investments in the mid-1980s. When export prices for prawn fell dramatically in 1989, demand for fry dropped as most prawn growers stopped operations or reduced stocking densities. Natural calamities – typhoons, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions – further depressed conditions in the hatchery sector.

      This paper presents an economic analysis of hatchery operations in the Philippines using data gathered through interviews and structured questionnaires in 1992. Economic indicators estimated include: investment requirements, unit cost, benefit over cost ratios, and internal rates of return. Breakeven and sensitivity analyses of operating hatcheries were employed to determine the degree of risk and changes in profitability levels associated with different scales of operation given changes in output price, input price and production level.

      Results indicate that net income per production run was positive for all scales of hatchery operation in spite of the current adverse market conditions. New hatchery investments, however, should be made in medium- and small-scale facilities because these have a better chance to survive worsening market conditions and periodic spawner shortages. Medium-size operations provide the best returns, and large-scale operations showed negative returns. Large-scale hatcheries are operating below capacity due to scarcity of spawners and low market demand.
    • Article

      Economic analysis of prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in the Philippines, II: Grow-out operations 

      U Hatch, R Agbayani & E Belleza - Asian Fisheries Science, 1996 - Asian Fisheries Society
      The dramatic fall in prawn (Penaeus monodon) prices coupled with environmental concerns has resulted in a relative stagnation of prawn grow-out operations in the Philippines. Leaders of the Philippine aquaculture sector are concerned that their cost of production is higher than that of their close competitors in Indonesia and Thailand. Also, the environmental and production crash experienced in Taiwan has led to a general perception that intensive culture cannot be sustained. The sector recently experienced a lack of direction and growth, combined with crowded water sheds, excessive use of water bodies, overuse of groundwater and continued destruction of mangrove.

      A field survey of prawn growers was conducted in August-October 1992 using a standardized economic questionnaire that included costs, returns and growers perceptions of constraints. Economic estimates were developed for representative production systems; intensive, semi-intensive, extensive and prawn-milkfish rotation.

      The incentive to expand the prawn pond area is not strong. Existing intensive facilities can be operated efficiently and profitably, but new intensive operations will most likely need to include water treatment capabilities for water entering and exiting grow-out ponds. Canals, reservoirs or ponds used for water quality improvement may be able to concurrently produce a profitable crop, such as milkfish-prawn rotation. Internal rate of return for semi-intensive ponds using earthen ponds was higher than for other culture systems. If, over time, water quality and conservation constraints are sufficiently addressed, stocking densities might be increased. Research and extension programs targeting equity should focus on integrated systems.
    • Article

      An economic analysis of the modular pond system of milkfish production in the Philippines 

      RF Agbayani, DD Baliao, NM Franco, RB Ticar & NG Guanzon Jr. - Aquaculture, 1989 - Elsevier
      In 1980, the annual yield of milkfish ponds in the Philippines was 800 kg/ha while the potential yield is estimated to be 2000 kg/ha. The modular pond system analyzed in this study can largely close the gap between actual and potential yield through more efficient use of pond capacity to increase the number of croppings up to 7 times in 1 year. Pilot-scale production using the modular pond system was done at the Leganes Research Station (LRS) SEAFDEC, Iloilo, and at three cooperating commercial farms. Scale of operation ranged from 2.7 ha to 7.9 ha. From 2 to 7 production runs were recorded with per hectare outputs ranging from 278 kg to 341 kg per run. Input costs were based on actual figures and the ex-farm milkfish price as P21.00 (4 to 6 fish/kg). The average return on investment and payback period for all sites was 68.81% and 1.25 years, respectively.
    • Article

      Economic assessment of commercial hatchery production of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) fry 

      LMB Garcia, RF Agbayani, MN Duray, GV Hilomen-Garcia, AC Emata & CL Marte - Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1999 - John Wiley and Sons
      The economic viabilities of two types of commercial hatchery milkfish (Chanos chanos) fry operations were assessed and compared. Based on the actual cost of input, the physical facilities, and the potential production yields, four commercial hatcheries previously used for shrimp (Penaeus monodon fry production were classified as either largeor smallscale operations. Cost-return analysis revealed high profits for both types of operation. The return on investment (54-61 %) and the payback period ( approximately 1.5 years) were comparable between the two types, although a large-scale operation (476 %) had double the working capital return of a small-scale hatchery (221 %). Benefit-cost analysis over a 5-year period also revealed positive and above-baseline discounted economic indicators [net current value = 0.2-2.2 million Philippine Pesos (1 US Dollar = 25 Philippine Pesos); internal rate of return = 88-107 %]. The net benefit-cost ratio of a large-scale operation (2.0) was higher than that of a small-scale hatchery (1.4), suggesting a slight edge in the investment viability of a large-scale hatchery. Compared with a large-scale operation, a small-scale hatchery was more sensitive to changes in the acquisition price of eggs or newly-hatched larvae and in the price of selling hatchery fry. Both types of operation are viable nonetheless when the acquisition cost is P6000 per million eggs or larvae and hatchery fry are sold at P0.50 each. Together, profit and investment in milkfish hatchery fry production appear viable, making milkfish an alternative commodity for production in many abandoned shrimp hatcheries. The limited availability of spawned eggs and larvae for rearing and the quality of hatchery fry are issues requiring urgent attention.
    • Article

      Economic evaluation of grow-out diets for Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther) production 

      EB Coniza, JD Tan-Fermin, MR Catacutan, AT Triño & RF Agbayani - UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 2000 - University of the Philippines in the Visayas
      The economic feasibility of four grow-out diets for the Asian catfish Clarias macrocephalus was evaluated on a 1000 m2/crop basis. Hatchery-bred catfish juveniles with mean body weight (MBW) of 3.6 g and mean total length (MTL) of 7.8 cm were stocked at 10 fish/m2. Laboratory-formulated diet with 20% crude protein (CP; Diet 1) resulted in net losses. Laboratory-formulated diet with 34% CP (Diet 2), commercial feed pellet with 29% CP (Diet 3), and a mixed diet of blanched chicken entrails (80%) and rice bran (20%) with 32% CP (Diet 4) gave acceptable return on investment (ROI) of 131-326% and return on operating capital of 52-71%. Culture of Asian catfish fed Diet 2, however, attained higher net profit before tax per 1000 m2/crop, ROI (326%), and has the lowest payback period on investment (0.3 yr) or operating capital (1.4 yr) compared with using Diets 3 and 4. Partial budget analysis showed that higher net benefit can be earned by using Diet 2 as feed for C. macrocephalus compared with using Diet 4. Sensitivity analysis done by increasing in feed cost by 20% and decreasing the selling price of fish by 20% showed that ROI were 107-262% and 46-159%, respectively and return on operating capital of 42-57% and 18-35%, respectively. Payback period on investment were 0.4-0.9 yr and 0.6-1.9 yr, respectively while payback period on operating capital were 1.7-2.2 yr and 2.7-4.7 yr, respectively. Results suggest that C. macrocephalus culture is economically feasible with Diets 2, 3 and 4 as feed but the use of Diet 2 is more profitable.
    • Article

      Economic feasibility analysis of the monoculture of mudcrab (Scylla serrata) Forsskal 

      RF Agbayani, DD Baliao, GPB Samonte, RE Tumaliuan & R Caturao - Aquaculture, 1990 - Elsevier
      Mudcrabs, Scylla serrata Forsskal, were monocultured at different stocking densities: 5000, 10 000, 15 000 and 20 000/ha for 90 days. Highest mean weight, survival and relative growth increment (P>0.05) were obtained from a stocking density of 5000/ha. Best feed conversion ratio of 1.72 and corresponding gross production of 1019 kg/ha per crop were attained at the same stocking density. The economic indicators, i.e., return on investment and return on equity, were also highest at 5000/ha stocking density and the payback period was shortest. Partial budgeting showed that no incremental benefit accrued from stocking beyond 5000/ha. Sensitivity analysis showed that even if the value of mudcrab were to decrease by 28%, mudcrab monoculture would still be economically viable.