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    • Book chapter

      Aquaculture 

      M Troell, N Kautsky, M Beveridge, P Henriksson, J Primavera, P Rönnbäck & C Folke - In SA Levin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2013 - Academic Press
      Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.
    • Book chapter

      Aquaculture 

      N Kautsky, C Folke, P Ronnback, M Troell, M Beveridge & JH Primavera - In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2001 - Elsevier
      Aquaculture, the aquatic counterpart of agriculture, has grown rapidly in recent decades to become one of the most important means of obtaining food from the sea. Impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity arise from the consumption of resources, such as land (or space), water, seed, and feed, their transformation into products valued by society, and the subsequent release into the environment of wastes from uneaten food, fecal and urinary products, and chemtherapeutants as well as microorganisms, parasites, and feral animals. Negative effects may be direct, through release of eutrophicating substances, toxic chemicals, the transfer of diseases and parasites to wild stock, and the introduction of exotic and genetic material into the environment, or indirect through loss of habitat and niche space and changes in food webs. Today, large quantities of fish are caught to produce fish meal–the main ingredient in feed–which may result in overfishing and affect marine food chains, including marine mammals and top carnivores. In some types of aquaculture, fish and shrimp larvae are caught in the wild to be used as seed. This may also result in bycatches of large amounts of other larvae, representing losses to capture fisheries and biodiversity. Large areas of critical habitats such as wetlands and mangroves have been lost due to aquaculture siting and pollution, resulting in lowered biodiversity and recruitment to capture fisheries. The magnitude of biodiversity loss generally increases with scale, intensity of resource use, and net production of wastes, but it is very much dependent on which species is cultured and the method of cultivation. In some cases aquaculture may increase local biodiversity, e.g., when ponds are constructed in dry areas and with integrated aquaculture.