Now showing items 1-8 of 8

    • Book

      Diseases of penaeid shrimps in the Philippines 

      MCL Baticados, ER Cruz-Lacierda, M de la Cruz, RC Duremdez-Fernandez, RQ Gacutan, CR Lavilla-Pitogo & GD Lio-po - 1990 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 16
      The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps culture in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment.
    • Article

      Experiments on virulence dose and portals of entry for Aeromonas hydrophila in walking catfish 

      GD Lio-Po, LJ Albright & EM Leaño - Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 1996 - American Fisheries Society
      Aeromonas hydrophila, isolated from chevron snakehead Ophicephalus (=Channa) striatus affected with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), was injected intramuscularly into healthy walking catfish Clarias batrachus at varying 10-fold serial dilutions from 108 to 0 colony-forming units (cfu) per fish. Only 106 or more cfu/mL induced dermomuscular lesions. Initial healing of lesions was observed by day 7 but complete healing was not apparent until day 16. Experiments were also conducted on possible portals of entry of A. hydrophila into walking catfish: Intramuscular (IM) injection, gastric gavage, fish food, and immersion of injured fish in rearing water inoculated with the test bacteria. Injuries were caused by skin or muscle cut, dermal scraping or incision, fish bite, and cohabitation of fish with golden snails Ampullarius sp. Only IM injection treatment induced dermomuscular pathology in the test catfish. This suggests that a localization of A. hydrophila to a level of 106 cfu/mL in the musculature must be established for dermal lesions to develop.
    • Book chapter

      Infectious diseases of warmwater fish in fresh water 

      GD Lio-Po & LHS Lim - In PTK Woo, DW Bruno & LHS Lim (Eds.), Diseases and disorders of finfish in cage culture, 2002 - CAB International
    • Conference paper

      The pathogenicity of bacteria associated with transport-stressed Chanos chanos fingerlings 

      G Lio-Po & R Duremdez-Fernandez - In JL Maclean, LB Dizon & LV Hosillos (Eds.), The First Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the First Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-31 May 1986, Manila, Philippines, 1986 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Two isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila biovar hydrophila and two isolates of Pseudomonas-like bacteria cultured from milkfish, Chanos chanos, fingerlings stocked in Laguna Lake(Philippines) pens after transport were tested for virulence against healthy milkfish fingerlings. Various combination of bacterial and different routes of inoculation (intraperitoneal injection, bath treatment of scaled fish and bath treatment of unscaled fish) were tested. Results show that bacterial entry in the pathogenesis of the test bacteria to challenged fish is more effective in fishes with scales removed than in uninjured fish or though intraperitoneal injection. The minimum lethal dose of A. hydrophila to scaled fish appeared less than 105 cells/ml of water medium. For Pseudomons-like isolates, the minimum lethal dose was at the level 105 cells/ml of water medium. Fish mortalities significantly increased on day 2 in all bacteria but A. hydrophila was significantly more virulent than the Pseudomonas-like inocula. When A. hydrophilawas injected intraperitoneally into undamaged fish, the maximum dose of 107cells per 2-g fish was needed to cause significant moralities. In general, virulence of the isolates was directly proportional to dose as well as to the length of exposure. A cute signs of bacterial infected scaled milkfish. Lethargic fish displayed spastic and unbalanced swimming movement before death. The virulence of the bacteria as evaluated in this study should lead to further investigation on the role of extracellular factors in bacterial pathogenesis to milkfish fingerling.
    • Conference paper

      Recent developments in the study and surveillance of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in Asia 

      GD Lio-Po - In MG Bondad-Reantaso, JB Jones, F Corsin & A Takashi (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Taipei, Taiwan 20-26 June 2008, 2011 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Koi herpesvirus infection causes significant mortalities in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and ghost carp (common x koi cross, Cyprinus carpio koi). Outbreaks have been reported in many countries worldwide i.e. UK, Germany, Israel, USA, Belgium, South Africa, Switzerland, The Netherlands, France, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxemburg and Poland. The first outbreaks attributed to KHV in Asian countries were reported from Hong Kong in 2001; Indonesia in 2002; Taiwan in 2002; Japan in 2003; Thailand in 2005; and Singapore in 2005. Thereafter, research studies embarked on KHV focused on pathogenicity, cell line susceptibility, fish size susceptibility, predilection to fish organs, persistence in fish, vaccine development and application, surveillance and gene sequence analyses of KHV strains. To date, annual active surveillance of the virus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, the Philippines and Vietnam showed that these countries were free of KHV from 2004 to 2007. Several strains of KHV apparently affect koi and common carp in this region indicating that transboundary movement of the virus has occurred not only in Asia but also from Europe and the Americas. The extensive international trade in live ornamental koi fish has largely contributed to the global spread of KHV. Hence, KHV disease (KHVD) was recently added to the list of notifiable diseases of the World Organisation of Animal Health or the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), an indication of the global significance of this viral infection.
    • Conference paper

      Siderophore detection among bacteria associated with the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) 

      EM Leaño, GD Lio-Po & LA Dureza - In M Shariff, JR Arthur & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II : Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 25-29 October 1993, Phuket, Thailand, 1995 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Sixteen isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila andone isolate each of Aeromonas sp. n., Aquaspirillum sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Streptococcus sp., isolated from normal, apparently normal and epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)-affected fish were screened for siderophore production at 20, 25, 30, and 37oC. results showed that siderophore production of A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. n. isolates decreased with increasing temperature. Among A. hydrophila isolates, 81.2% produced siderophore at 20oC, 50% at 25 and 30oC, and only 37.5 at 37oC. In contrast, Aquaspirillum sp., Pseudomonas ep., and Streptococcus sp., showed higher production of siderophore at 30 and 37oC.
    • Article

      Surveillance of emerging fish viral pathogens in some Southeast Asian countries 

      G Lio-Po, E Amar, L de la Peña, ZG Orozco, J Faisan, V Suarnaba & DB Tubo - The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 2009 - Society of Israeli Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology
      Preventing the transboundary movement of fish viral pathogens in a global environment requires active surveillance. This study examined the presence of three emerging viral pathogens among koi, common, grass, and silver carp in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam. The studied viruses included koi herpesvirus (KHV), spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), and grass carp reovirus (GCRV). Detection methods consisted of virus isolation by cell culture, infection assay in naive fish, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Tissues were collected and pooled from 193 fish samples in Dec. 2004 to Feb. 2005, 406 in Sep. 2005 to Feb. 2006, and 1302 in Oct. 2006 to Feb. 2007. For cell culture, tissue filtrates were prepared from pooled spleens, kidneys, livers, and gills and inoculated onto koi fin (KF-1), grass carp kidney (GCK), and fat head minnow (FHM) cells. For infection assay, tissue filtrates were injected intraperitoneally to healthy, naive common carp. No virus was detected after three cell culture passages and the infection bioassays. One-step and nested-step PCR was used to detect KHV in gills of fish samples. One-step and semi-nested RT-PCR was used to detect SVCV and GCRV in the spleens, kidneys, and livers of fish samples. Samples from all three years from all five countries yielded negative results for all three viruses, indicating that KHV, SVCV, and GCRV were not present in these five countries during the period of the study although KHV outbreaks had been detected in Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Thailand, China, and Malaysia.
    • Conference paper

      Updates on the nervous necrosis virus and the koi herpesvirus in Southeast Asia 

      GD Lio-Po - In Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Aquatic Animal Health Management and Diseases, 27-28 January 2009, 2009 - Veteran Council I.R.IRAN
      In Southeast Asia, the Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) or Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER) and the Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection are currently economically-important diseases of fishes. The VNN affects groupers (Epinephelus akaara, E. coioides, E. tauvina, E. fuscogutatus, E. septemfasciatus, E. malabaricus, E. moara and Cromileptes altivelis), Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) in Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Vietnam. The Piscine nodavirus of the genus Betanodavirus, genotype red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is predominantly involved. Research on fish species pathogenicity, optimum temperature, cell susceptibility, organ predeliction, pathology, virus reservoirs, experimental infection, vaccination and diagnosis have been reported. The Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection causes significant mortalities in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) and ghost carp (common x koi cross, Cyprinus carpio goi). Outbreaks have been reported among koi in Hongkong in 2001; common carp in Indonesia, in 2002; koi in Taiwan in 2002; and common carp in Japan, in 2003. A dramatic spread of the disease was subsequently observed among most prefectures in Japan, with outbreaks that eventually involved koi carp. In Thailand, KHV was first diagnosed in March 2005 while in Singapore, in Sept 2005. By Feb 2006, two batches of Thai koi exported to Singapore, tested KHV PCR positive from which the virus was successfully isolated on KF-1 cells. In Malaysia, no KHV outbreak was reported but the presence of the virus was detected among koi carp exported to UK in 2000 and in 2001. In 2004, koi carp in Malaysia tested positive for KHV by nested PCR. To date, annual active surveillance of the virus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines and Vietnam from 2004 to 2008 showed these countries are free of KHV. Recent developments on research of KHV focused on pathogenicity, cell line susceptibility, fish size susceptibility, predilection to fish organs, persistence in fish, vaccine development and application, surveillance and gene sequence analyses of KHV strains. The extensive international trading of live ornamental koi fish has largely contributed to the global spread of KHV. Hence, KHV was recently added to the list of notifiable diseases to the World Organisation of Animal Health or the Office International des Epizooties (OIE).