Browsing by Author "Gatus, Joey Ll."
Community-based coral farming for reef rehabilitation, biodiversity conservation and as a livelihood option for fisherfolk T Heeger, FB Sotto, JL Gatus & C Laron - In LMB Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development … Southeast Asia organized by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterThe present condition of marine resources in the Philippines is critical and a majority of coastal communities live below the poverty line. If it continues, the progressive degradation of coral reefs and overexploitation poses a dangerous trend. Coastal resource management strategies are facing a new challenge: the integration of social, economic and natural sciences in future concepts to reverse the current status of ecosystem destruction and improvement of the people s living conditions. Hence, the primary objective of the coral farm is to provide alternative livelihood to fisher families from their resources on a sustained basis. The second objective is the rehabilitation of degraded reefs. Currently coral colonies of 64 species are taken through fragmentation from the wild. After 6-12 weeks (depending on the species) of grow-out in the farm, the fragments were deployed at the rehabilitation site at an average of 2 fragments per square meter (=12.5% cover). The survival of fragments is high at 84%, despite the fact that some coral colonies were placed in unsuitable substrates by the fisherfolk. More trainings have to be conducted improve their knowledge of coral biology and community structure. The net cost of rehabilitating a one-hectare reef is U$2,100 for 12.5% cover. Additional profit from coral marketing is used for community projects identified by the folk. In this case, coral farming may be an option for livelihood and a cost-effective tool for reef rehabilitation.
A preliminary study on the diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of coral replenishment technology T Azuma, JJR Tan, J Zarate, J Altamirano, J Gatus & F Sotto - In MRR Romana-Eguia, FD Parado-Estepa, ND Salayo & MJH Lebata-Ramos (Eds.), Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia: Challenges in Responsible Production … International Workshop on Resource Enhancement and Sustainable Aquaculture Practices in Southeast Asia 2014 (RESA), 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development CenterField surveys for coral reef through line-intercept-transect (LIT) and temperature profiling using data-loggers were done at three layers of 5, 10, and 15 m depths in coral reef areas, Nogas Island, Anini-y, Antique, Philippines. Preliminary data based on the LIT survey showed that both coverages of substrates by any type of organism and by Scleractinia decreased in the deeper layers. For Scleractinia, Porites sp. occurred predominantly in all the depth layers with the occurrence decreasing with depth. Temperature fluctuation was largest in the 5 m depth layer, where effects of tidal level were also confirmed. While the average temperature decreased with depth, this did not differ beyond 1°C between 5 and 15 m layers during November 2012 to March 2013. Fragments of the Porites sp. and Acropora sp. were sampled and transferred to aquaria at the Tigbauan Main Station of SEAFDEC/AQD. Acropora sp. sampled from the deepest layer alone showed bleaching and thereafter, a part of the fragments regained the color. Experimental trials to clarify the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the health of the coral using the live fragments of Porites sp. showed decreasing trends in both photosynthetic rates and daily growth rates in acidic condition (pH = 7.6), while decrease of zooxanthellae density was observed under warmer conditions (31°C ) for one month. A new methodology for the determination of density of zooxanthellae was established using the fragments of Porites sp. In this study, the need for studies on several coral communities as well as further basic research on coral biology, particularly, responses to the changing environments are discussed for diagnosis of coral reef healthiness and establishment of effective coral replenishment technology.