Now showing items 1-2 of 2

    • Article

      The coral communities of Mararison Island, Culasi, Antique, Philippines 

      CL Marte & YP Tirol - UPV Journal of Natural Sciences, 2006 - University of the Philippines in the Visayas
      An assessment of the extensive fringing reefs surrounding Mararison lsland, Culasi, Antique was undertaken in 1994 to 1996 and in 1998 to provide scientific basis for management and enhancement of the island s resources as part of the Community Fisheries Resource Management project launched in 1991. The fringing reefs on the northwest side of the island are characterized by high percent coral cover (53-65%) consisting of very diverse coral species. The dominant forms are branching non-Acropora,with numerous small colonies of other coral forms. In contrast, the southeast side of the island fronting the fishing village is depau perate (4.7 -17.6% coral cover) with few small colonies of encrusting and massive corals characteristic of stressed reefs. However, highest coral cover consisting of dense stands of branching Acropora interspersed with branching non-Acropora was observed along the reef slope of Nablag station located at the western end of the island. Coral cover in the offshore reef (Guiob) was relatively fair (24%-46%). A total of 166 scleractinian corals were seen although only few species occurred frequently or provided high percent coral cover. Following the bleaching event of 1998, dramatic decreases (30%-61%) in live coral cover, particularly along the reef slopes, were observed in all stations.
    • Article

      Ultrastructure of the anterior intestinal epithelia of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae under different feeding regimes 

      YH Primavera-Tirol, RM Coloso, GF Quinitio, R Ordonio-Aguilar & LV Laureta Jr. - Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 2014 - Springer Verlag
      Enterocytes of the anterior to midsection of the intestine in grouper Epinephelus coioides larvae were compared among different treatments: unfed to the point-of-no-return (PNR), fed natural food only, and co-fed natural food and artificial diet. On day 3, the nutritional condition of unfed grouper larvae regressed with its reduced enterocyte heights which were further degraded on day 4, the PNR, when all the enterocytes were in advanced stages of apoptosis. The apoptosis appeared to be internally directed via the mitochondria. Among day 3 fed larvae, enterocyte heights of those fed artificial diet did not differ from those fed natural food only. Dietary phospholipid deficiency was indicated in larvae co-fed artificial diet on day 3 with an unusually large chylomicron opening into the inter-enterocyte space, and on days 6 and 33 by intestinal steatosis. On day 19, scant to absent lipid droplets in enterocytes of larvae disclosed heightened nutritional requirement preparatory to metamorphosis. As observed in unfed day 3 and premetamorphic day 19 E. coioides, larvae undergoing critical periods and starvation during development employ apoptosis to dispose of degenerated enterocytes that are phagocytosed by adjacent healthy enterocytes without causing inflammatory distress. Upon metamorphosis, grouper larval gut develops better immunity fitness with eosinophilic granule cells observed in the intestinal epithelia of day 33 larvae. Future studies on grouper larval nutrition may consider the appropriate dietary phospholipid levels and larval competence to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acid from linoleic acid vis-à-vis the use of plant ingredients in artificial diet formulations. In vivo challenge tests may validate appropriate dietary nutrient supplementation and lead to better feed formulation, matching the varying energetic demands and digestive capacities of developing E. coioides larvae.