Now showing items 1-20 of 22

    • Conference paper

      Acute toxicity of formalin to sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fry. 

      FC Pascual, GT Tayo & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In LM Chou, AD Munro, TJ Lam, TW Chen, LKK Cheong, JK Ding, KK Hooi, HW Khoo, VPE Phang, KF Shim & CH Tan (Eds.), The Third Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-30 October 1992, Singapore, 1994 - Asian Fisheries Society
    • Conference paper

      Bacterial studies of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) outbreak in the Philippines 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & JL Torres - In RJ Roberts, B Campbell & IH MacRae (Eds.), ODA Regional Seminar on Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome, 25-27 January 1994, Bangkok, Thailand, 1994 - Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute
      Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) is a disease of wild and cultured freshwater fishes in Asia and IndoPacific (Roberts et al., 1986; Lilley et al., 1992). In the Philippines, the first confirmed EUS outbreak is reported in Laguna de Bay in December 1985 to February 1986 (Llobrera and Gacutan, 1987). Since then, EUS has been observed annually in the lake during the coldest months of the year - December to February or March. The disease has spread throughout Luzon, affecting wild and cultured fishes in lakes, ponds, paddy fields, and rice fish systems (Bondad-Reantaso et al., 1992). In September to December 1990, EUS was recorded among brackishwater and marine fishes from a lagoon in northern Luzon (Reantaso, 1991).

      Although EUS is recognized as a regional problem, no definite primary causative agent has been established. Virus, fungi, bacteria, and parasites have been isolated in EUS-positive fishes, but none has been implicated as the primary pathogen (Roberts et al., 1993a & 1993b). Among the bacteria associated with EUS, Aeromonas hydrophila is consistently isolated in affected fishes from the Philippines (Llobrera and Gacutan, 1987; Torres et al., 1990; Lio-Po et al., 1992). This paper reviews the work done on the bacterial aspects of EUS in the Philippines.
    • Book

      Diseases of penaeid shrimps in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, GD Lio-Po, ER Cruz-Lacierda, EV Alapide-Tendencia & LD de la Peña - 2000 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Series: Aquaculture extension manual; No. 16
      The manual provides information on the diseases that affect the 3 major species of shrimps cultured in the Philippines: Penaeus monodon, P. merguiensis and P. indicus. It includes the common name of the disease, causative agent, species affected, stages affected, gross signs, effects on the host and methods of prevention and treatment. This revised edition includes newly discovered diseases. It is hoped that the manual will be of considerable help to shrimp farmers in identifying the disease and lead to prevention or early disease diagnosis and control.
    • Book chapter

      Environmental diseases 

      GE Erazo-Pagador & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This chapter focuses on swimbladder stress syndrome and gas bubble disease, the two most common disorders due to adverse environmental conditions.
    • Conference paper

      Establishment of method managing aquaculture environmnets to allow sustainable production. 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In Studies on Sustainable Production Systems of Aquatic Animals in Brackish Mangrove Areas, 2001 - Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
    • Conference paper

      Experimental transmission of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in snakehead, Ophicephalus striatus 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & M Shariff - In M Shariff, JR Arthur & RP Subasinghe (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II : Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, 25-29 October 1993, Phuket, Thailand, 1995 - Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society
      Two separate experiments on transmission of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) to naive snakehead (Ophicephalus striatus) by cohabitation with EUS-positive snakehead in EUS-enzootic environment and exposure to EUS-enzootic environment alone were conducted in Laguna, Philippines. Under unfed conditions, initial signs of EUS were observed after 9 d of cohabitation and progressed into advanced stages in 10 tol6 d, whereas in exposure to EUS-enzootic environment alone, initial signs were observed in 10 d and developed into advanced stages in 15 to 20 d post-exposure. When food was given, initial signs of the disease were observed after 14 d of cohabitation and progressed into advanced stages in 17 to 20 d, whereas in fish exposed to EUS-enzootic environment alone, onset of EUS was 44 d post-exposure developing into advanced stages in 50 to 55 d post-exposure. Transmission of the disease was 100% in all treatments.
    • Book

      Health management in aquaculture 

      GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda - 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A textbook on diseases of cultured warmwater fish and shrimps in the Philippines. Eleven chapters cover essential information on the basic principles of disease causation, major diseases of cultured fish and crustaceans, particularly shrimps, and methods of prevention and control. Emphasis is made on major diseases that occur in the Philippines and other countries in the Asian region. Included also are topics on harmful algae, immunology and molecular biological diagnostic techniques.
    • Book

      Health management of milkfish Chanos chanos 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda, EG Estante, EGT de Jesus-Ayson & VL Corre Jr. - 2015 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This monograph provides updated information on diseases of marine and brackishwater cultured milkfish in the Philippines. The information presented here is largely based on the results of a three-year research project on milkfish at the University of the Philippines Visayas funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The project involved surveillance and monitoring of hatchery, nursery and grow-out operations for occurrence of diseases as well as on disease diagnosis, prevention and control. Previously documented reports in the Philippines and in other documents, both published and unpublished, are also included in this monograph. The diseases are discussed on a culture phase basis, that is, disease problems encountered in hatchery-reared larvae and fry are listed first, followed by diseases observed in fingerlings and juveniles grown in nursery and grow-out culture areas, and adult stages maintained in broodstock facilities. Information regarding the causative agent, diagnostic procedures, and methods of prevention and control for each disease are provided, if available.
    • Conference paper

      The hematological changes in snakehead (Ophicephalus striatus) affected by epizootic ulcerative syndrome 

      M Shariff & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In LM Chou, AD Munro, TJ Lam, TW Chen, LKK Cheong, JK Ding, HW Khoo, VPE Phang, KF Shim & CH Tan (Eds.), The Third Asian Fisheries Forum. Proceedings of the Third Asian Fisheries Forum, 26-30 October 1992, Singapore, 1994 - Asian Fisheries Society
      Selected hematological parameters were studied in snakehead from Laguna de Bay (Philippines) affected with different stages of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS). For comparison, normal (from a non-endemic area) and apparently normal fish were also studied. The hematocrit values of normal and apparently normal fish, 45.04 ± 0.71 and 47.20 ± 1.03%, respectively, were significantly higher (P<0.05) than severely affected fish (29.30 ± 2.34%). The same trend was observed for serum protein (7.09 ± 0.11 and 6.35 ± 0.27 g/100 ml for normal and apparently normal fish, respectively, against 4.68 ± 0.42 g/100 ml for severely affected fish) and hemoglobin (9.80 ± 0.26 and 9.70 ± 0.26 g/100 ml against 4.67 ± 0.42 g/100 ml) concentrations. The granulocyte counts of normal and apparently normal fish, 26.2 and 60.3, respectively were significantly lower than severely affected fish (210.0). This general hemodilution could be attributed to loss of body fluids and depression of hematopoietic tissues in the spleen and kidney.
    • Book chapter

      Histology as a tool in disease diagnosis 

      ES Catap & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Histology is an important tool in fish disease diagnosis as it affords the comparison of normal structures or morphology of tissues against those from diseased fish. However, correct diagnosis and confirmation of changes associated with diseases require proper specimen processing and some degree of expertise in histopathology.

      The four basic types of tissues are: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. An organ is usually a combination of these four tissue types. It is important to remember that the histology or structure of an organ is always related to the function it performs.
    • Book chapter

      Major diseases of cultured fish and shrimp 

      RV Pakingking Jr., ER Cruz-Lacierda & EV Alapide-Tendencia - In Training Handbook on Rural Aquaculture, 2009 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Occurrence of luminous bacterial disease of Penaeus monodon larvae in the Philippines 

      CR Lavilla-Pitogo, MCL Baticados, ER Cruz-Lacierda & LD de la Peña - Aquaculture, 1990 - Elsevier
      Larval mortalities associated with luminescence have been observed in epizootic proportions in black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) hatcheries in Panay Island, Philippines. Luminescent vibrios, identified as Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus, were isolated from infected larvae but not from uninfected ones. These bacteria were also recovered readily from seawater samples from nearshore areas, the main source of hatchery rearing water. Thus, it is possible that the nearshore seawater is one major source of infection. Pathogenicity tests resulted in significant mortalities of larvae and postlarvae of P. monodon within 48 h of immersion challenge. Scanning electron microscopic observations show that colonization by the bacteria occurred specifically on the feeding apparatus and oral cavity of the larvae, suggesting an oral route of entry for the initiation of infection.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In K Nagasawa & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Diseases of cultured groupers, 2004 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A wide variety of parasitic organisms have been reported as causing significant problems in grouper aquaculture. In the hatchery and nursery stages, parasitic diseases of groupers are caused predominantly by protozoans, particularly the ciliates. When grouper fry are transferred to grow-out facilities, they are subjected to handling and transport stress. These fish often carry a large variety and high intensity of ciliated protozoans, skin and gill monogeneans and caligid copepods.

      This chapter deals with the major parasites of cultured groupers including infections caused by protozoans, monogeneans, didymozoid digeneans, nematodes, caligid copepods, isopods and leeches.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases and pests 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      This chapter deals with parasitic animals of significance to aquaculture because of their harmful effects on fish and crustaceans. It also illustrates the life cycle of major parasites and discusses the various methods in diagnosing diseases caused by parasites, including disease prevention and control.
    • Book chapter

      Parasitic diseases and pests 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      A wide variety of parasites have been identified as causing significant economic losses in fish and shrimp culture. Most of these parasites are difficult to control effectively with a single measure. The control of parasites is dependent on culture systems of the host fish, knowledge of the life cycle of the parasite, and the availability of effective treatment methods.
    • Book chapter

      Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po & Y Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2010 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease prevention is a primary and cost-effective method in fish health management. It is more effective and economical than attempting to stop a disease that has already set in. Preventive measures have always big advantage over curative practices. Moreover, the drug may not provide remedies under all circumstances. Also, the drug may not help the host survive the infection until the environment is improved. Ideally, fish culturists should strive to decrease the stress-causing factors and eliminate and prevent the entry of pathogenic organisms by strictly adhering to the fish health monitoring programme.
    • Book chapter

      Physical, environmental, and chemical methods of disease prevention and control 

      ER Cruz-Lacierda & GE Erazo-Pagador - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
      Disease prevention is primary and cost-effective method in fish health management. It is more effective and economical than attempting to stop a disease that has already set in the recommendations given above will greatly reduce the possibility of disease outbreak.
    • Book chapter

      Preface - Health Management in Aquaculture 

      GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda - In GD Lio-Po, CR Lavilla & ER Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture, 2001 - Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    • Article

      Studies on the chemical control of luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus isolated from diseased Penaeus monodon larvae and rearing water 

      MCL Baticados, CR Lavilla-Pitogo, ER Cruz-Lacierda, LD de la Peña & NA Suñaz - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 1990 - Inter Research
      The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 24 drugs for luminous bacteria Vibrio harveyi and V. splendidus were determined. Only chloramphenicol, sodium nifurstyrenate and the nitrofurans (furazolidone, nitrofurazone, nitrofurantoin and Prefuran) showed relatively low MICs and MBCs (<25 µg/ml-1). The bacteria showed varied responses to chloramphenicol and Prefuran and low sensitivity to oxytetracycline. Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and Prefuran are commonly used in shrimp hatcheries. Shrimp larvae showed high survival rates and active swimming movement after 24 h exposure to in vivo bactericidal doses of chloramphenicol, Furacin, nitrofurantoin (protozoa only), oxytetracycline (nauplius only), Prefuran (mysis only) and sodium nifurstyrenate, but the drugs caused deformities in the carapace, rostrum, and setae. Chemical control of luminous vibriosis among shrimp larvae appears limited, based on the efficacy of existing and readily available drugs, because of the possible development of resistant strains of bacteria and the limited tolerance of the shrimp larvae to the drugs.
    • Article

      Susceptibility of fish species cultured in mangrove brackish area to piscine nodavirus 

      Y Maeno, LD de la Peña & ER Cruz-Lacierda - Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 2007 - Tropical Agricultural Research Centre
      Susceptibility of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides, Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer, mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, and rabbitfish Siganus guttatus to piscine nodavirus from orange-spotted grouper was studied by experimental infection. The fish were intraperitoneally injected with 0.05 mL of the filtrate homogenate of infected organs from diseased grouper at 106.8, 105.8 or 104.8 TCID50/fish, while the control group received 0.05 mL of Hanks’ balanced salt solution. Clinical signs such as lethargy, anorexia and darkened pigmentation were observed in the orange-spotted grouper, Asian sea bass, mangrove red snapper, and milkfish injected with high and medium doses of the homogenate. Although no or little mortality occurred in the experimentallyinfected fish 10 days post-inoculation, viral nervous necrosis specific lesions such as severe necrosis and vacuolation in the brain and retina were produced in these four fish species. The virus was reisolated in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the filtrated tissue homogenate of survivors in all doses for all four fish species. However, in the experimentally infected rabbitfish no histological lesion was observed, and no virus was reisolated. These results indicate that grouper, sea bass, mangrove red snapper, and milkfish are susceptible to the piscine nodavirus isolated from diseased grouper.